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Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1824; doi:10.3390/su9101824

Full Random Coefficients Multilevel Modeling of the Relationship between Land Use and Trip Time on Weekdays and Weekends

Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Interdisciplinary Program in Landscape Architecture, Environmental Planning Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract

Interests in weekend trips are increasing, but few have studied how they are affected by land use. In this study, we analyze the relationship between compact land use characteristics and trip time in Seoul, Korea by comparing two research models, each of which uses the weekday and weekend data of the same travelers. To secure sufficient numbers of subjects and groups, full random coefficients multilevel models define the trip as level one and the neighborhood as level two, and find that level-two land use characteristics account for less variation in trip time than level-one individual characteristics. At level one, weekday trip time is found to be reduced by the choice of the automobile as a travel mode, but not by its ownership per se. In addition, it becomes reduced if made by high income travelers and extended to travel to quality jobs. Among four land use characteristics at level two, population density, road connectivity, and subway availability are shown to be significant in the weekday model. Only subway availability has a positive relationship with trip time and this finding is consistent with the level-one result that the choice of automobile alternatives increases trip time. The other land use characteristic, land use balance, turns out to be a single significant land use variable in the weekend model, implying that it is concerned mainly with non-work, non-mandatory travel. View Full-Text
Keywords: land use; trip time; sustainability; multilevel modeling; Seoul land use; trip time; sustainability; multilevel modeling; Seoul
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Gim, T.-H.T. Full Random Coefficients Multilevel Modeling of the Relationship between Land Use and Trip Time on Weekdays and Weekends. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1824.

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