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Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1697; doi:10.3390/su9101697

Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Prospective Insect Based Feed Production in West Africa

1
Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
2
Institute for Environmental Management and Land-use Planning, Université libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium
3
Edge Environment Pty Ltd, Manly, NSW 2095, Australia
4
Department of Plant Protection, Fera Science Ltd, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
5
Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
6
Entofood Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur 50470, Malaysia
7
Institut d’Economie Rurale, Centre Régional de Recherche Agricole de Sotuba, Bamako BP 258, Mali
8
CABI, CH-2800 Delémont, Switzerland
9
School of Biosciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
10
Fish for Africa (FfA)—Ghana Ltd by Guarantee, Ashaiman Accra, P.O. Box AS273, Ghana
11
KU Leuven, Division of Bioeconomics, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract

While the concept of insect based feeds (IBFs) promises great potential, especially in developing countries, the sustainability performance of IBF production remains widely underexplored. Drawing on experimental data from rearing trials in West Africa, three different insect production systems were modelled ex-ante. The generic models served as a basis to analyse and compare the process performances of different IBF production systems using Musca domestica and Hermetia illucens reared on different substrates. The results show that the input efficiency in the production of IBF is largely determined by the quality of rearing substrates, the larval development time and the employed inoculation practises, i.e., the method by which eggs or larvae are added to rearing substrates. The H. illucens system ranked highest for conversion efficiency (substrate input per IBF output), but showed substantially higher inputs in labour, fossil energy and output of wastewater. M. domestica systems operated at lower conversion efficiencies, which resulted in higher outputs of residue substrates, together with higher emissions, land requirements, built infrastructure and water. By offering full disclosure of generic inventory data, this study provides data and inspiration for prospect research and development activities and offers a reference to future life cycle assessments (LCAs) on IBF. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sustainable Development; Eco-design; ex-ante assessment; environmental LCA; LCC; insect-based protein; product development; livestock feed; circular economy Sustainable Development; Eco-design; ex-ante assessment; environmental LCA; LCC; insect-based protein; product development; livestock feed; circular economy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Roffeis, M.; Almeida, J.; Wakefield, M.E.; Valada, T.R.A.; Devic, E.; Koné, N.; Kenis, M.; Nacambo, S.; Fitches, E.C.; Koko, G.K.D.; Mathijs, E.; Achten, W.M.J.; Muys, B. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Prospective Insect Based Feed Production in West Africa. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1697.

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