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Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 81; doi:10.3390/su9010081

Germination of Bouteloua dactyloides and Cynodon dactylon in a Multi-Polluted Soil

1
Advanced Materials Research Center (CIMAV), Durango, Dgo. P.C. 34000, Mexico
2
Faculty of Agrotechnological Science, Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Chih. P.C. 31110, Mexico
3
Faculty of Zootechnics and Ecology, Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Chih. P.C. 31031, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Torretta
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 9 January 2017
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Abstract

Mining wastes generate high environmental impacts, and population exposure to metals and metalloids. Phytoremediation is a technology that uses plants to remediate polluted sites, but one of its limitations is seed germination in soil with a high content of metals and metalloids. Bouteloua dactyloides (former Buchloe dactyloides) is a native species from semiarid regions, while Cynodon dactylon is an invasive species; both are tolerant to harsh soil conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the germination of both species, exposed to a multi-polluted soil with As, Cd, Pb, and Zn of a mining site, considering different pH conditions (from 5.0 to 9.0). The study considered four repetitions by type of seed and soil pH. The highest germination of B. dactyloides was 83% at pH 7.8, while the greatest germination of C. dactylon was 34% at pH 6.0. These percentages are similar to those obtained in a standard germination test, which are 82.5% for B. dactyloides and 35% for C. dactylon. Germination was not reached in either species with soil at pH 5, owing to the fact that metals are more bioavailable in acid environments. B. dactyloides and C. dactylon had a high potential to germinate in multi-polluted soil at neutral pH, but further experiments are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable technology; phytoremediation; germination; Bouteloua dactyloides; Cynodon dactylon sustainable technology; phytoremediation; germination; Bouteloua dactyloides; Cynodon dactylon
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Delgado-Caballero, M.R.; Alarcón-Herrera, M.T.; Valles-Aragón, M.C.; Melgoza-Castillo, A.; Ojeda-Barrios, D.L.; Leyva-Chávez, A. Germination of Bouteloua dactyloides and Cynodon dactylon in a Multi-Polluted Soil. Sustainability 2017, 9, 81.

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