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Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 132; doi:10.3390/su9010132

Assessment of Ammonia Volatilization Losses and Nitrogen Utilization during the Rice Growing Season in Alkaline Salt-Affected Soils

1
Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Iain Gordon
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1220 KB, uploaded 18 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different fertilizer types and application rates on ammonia volatilization loss and to explore nitrogen distribution and nitrogen use efficiency using the 15N isotope tracing technique in different alkaline salt-affected conditions in the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. The results showed a decreasing trend in ammonia volatilization loss from ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, but not that from urea, as the electrical conductivity gradient increased, whereas the reverse trend was found as the pH gradient increased. Ammonia volatilization loss increased in moderately salt-affected soil compared with that in slightly salt-affected soil, particularly during the tillering stage, regardless of the N fertilizer rate. The percentage of N absorbed by rice plants increased from urea but decreased from the soil as the amount of nitrogen was increased. Interestingly, the N retention rate in soil decreased and rice grain yield and nitrogen agronomic efficiency increased as the amount of nitrogen increased in both salt-affected soil conditions. The nitrogen application amount of highest N physiological efficiency was 225 kg·N/ha. Considering high rice production and a minimal environmental threat, we should fully consider controlling ammonia volatilization losses by adjusting the fertilizer type and the crop stage when the fertilizer is applied. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkaline salt-affected soils; ammonia volatilization; nitrogen management; 15N isotope tracing technique; nitrogen use efficiency alkaline salt-affected soils; ammonia volatilization; nitrogen management; 15N isotope tracing technique; nitrogen use efficiency
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Li, Y.; Huang, L.; Zhang, H.; Wang, M.; Liang, Z. Assessment of Ammonia Volatilization Losses and Nitrogen Utilization during the Rice Growing Season in Alkaline Salt-Affected Soils. Sustainability 2017, 9, 132.

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