Next Article in Journal
Sustainability and the Tourism and Hospitality Workforce: A Thematic Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of China’s Recycling Subsidy Policy in the Product Life Cycle
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 807; doi:10.3390/su8080807

Simulation and Assessment of Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Emission Flows from Different Residential Structures

1
College of Landscape Architecture, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forest University, Hangzhou 311300, China
2
College of Civil Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China
3
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 6 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1401 KB, uploaded 16 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

To explore the differences in carbon emissions over the whole life-cycle of different building structures, the published calculated carbon emissions from residential buildings in China and abroad were normalized. Embodied carbon emission flows, operations stage carbon emission flows, demolition and reclamation stage carbon emission flows and total life-cycle carbon emission flows from concrete, steel, and wood structures were obtained. This study is based on the theory of the social cost of carbon, with an adequately demonstrated social cost of carbon and social discount rate. Taking into consideration both static and dynamic situations and using a social discount rate of 3.5%, the total life-cycle carbon emission flows, absolute carbon emission and building carbon costs were calculated and assessed. The results indicated that concrete structures had the highest embodied carbon emission flows and negative carbon emission flows in the waste and reclamation stage. Wood structures that started the life-cycle with stored carbon had the lowest carbon emission flows in the operations stage and relatively high negative carbon emission flows in the reclamation stage. Wood structures present the smallest carbon footprints for residential buildings. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon emission flow; structure; residence; simulation; total carbon emission flow; absolute carbon emission; building cost of carbon carbon emission flow; structure; residence; simulation; total carbon emission flow; absolute carbon emission; building cost of carbon
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wen, R.; Qi, S.; Jrade, A. Simulation and Assessment of Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Emission Flows from Different Residential Structures. Sustainability 2016, 8, 807.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top