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Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 477; doi:10.3390/su8050477

Sustainable Production of Algal Biomass and Biofuels Using Swine Wastewater in North Carolina, US

1
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, North Carolina A & T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
2
Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina A & T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Kusiak
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Abstract

Algae were recently considered as a promising third-generation biofuel feedstock due to their superior productivity, high oil content, and environmentally friendly nature. However, the sustainable production became the major constraint facing commercial development of algal biofuels. For this study, firstly, a factorial experimental design was used to analyze the effects of the process parameters including temperatures of 8–25 °C, light intensity of 150–900 μmol·m−2s−1, and light duration of 6–24 h on the biomass yields of local alga Chlamydomonas debaryana in swine wastewater. The results were fitted with a quadratic equation (R2 = 0.9706). The factors of temperature, light duration, the interaction of light intensity-light duration, and the quadratic effect of temperature were statistically significant. When evaluating different scenarios for the sustainable production of algal biomass and biofuels in North Carolina, US, it showed that: (a) Growing C. debaryana in a 10-acre pond on swine wastewater under local weather conditions would yield algal biomass of 113 tonnes/year; (b) If all swine wastewater generated in North Carolina was treated with algae, it will require 137–485 acres of ponds, yielding biomass of 5048–10,468 tonnes/year and algal oil of 1010–2094 tonnes/year. Annually, hundreds of tonnes of nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from swine wastewater. The required area is mainly dependent on the growth rate of algal species. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable production of algal biomass; algal biofuels; swine wastewater; Chlamydomonas debaryana; year-round production sustainable production of algal biomass; algal biofuels; swine wastewater; Chlamydomonas debaryana; year-round production
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, B.; Wang, L.; Riddicka, B.A.; Li, R.; Able, J.R.; Boakye-Boaten, N.A.; Shahbazi, A. Sustainable Production of Algal Biomass and Biofuels Using Swine Wastewater in North Carolina, US. Sustainability 2016, 8, 477.

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