Next Article in Journal
Towards the Development of an Integrated Sustainability and Resilience Benefits Assessment Framework of Urban Green Growth Interventions
Previous Article in Journal
Study on the Evolvement of Technology Development and Energy Efficiency—A Case Study of the Past 30 Years of Development in Shanghai
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 459; doi:10.3390/su8050459

Sustainability and Chinese Urban Settlements: Extending the Metabolism Model of Emergy Evaluation

1,2,3
,
1,3
,
1,3,4
,
1,3
,
1,2,3
,
1,3
,
1,2,3
and
1,3,*
1
Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China
3
Key lab of Xiamen City metabolism, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021, China
4
Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315800, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Torretta
Received: 6 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 3 May 2016 / Published: 10 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2118 KB, uploaded 10 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Anthropogenic activity interacts with urban form and inner metabolic processes, ultimately impacting urban sustainability. China’s cities have experienced many environmental issues and metabolic disturbances since the nation-wide market-oriented “reform and opening-up” policy was adopted in the 1980s. To analyze urban reform policy impacts and metabolism sustainability at a settlement scale, this study provides an integrated analysis to evaluate settlement metabolism and sustainability using a combination of emergy analysis and sustainability indicators based on scrutiny of two typical settlements (one pre- and one post-reform). The results reveal that housing reform policy stimulated better planning and construction, thereby improving built environmental quality, mixed functional land use, and residential livability. The pre-reform work-unit settlements are comparatively denser in per capita area but have less mixed land use. Housing reform has spatially changed the work–housing balance and increased commuting travel demand. However, short commuting distances in pre-reform settlements will not always decrease overall motor vehicle usage. Integrating non-commuting transport with local mixed land-use functional planning is a necessary foundation for sustainable urban design. Functional planning should provide convenient facilities and infrastructure, green space, and a suitable household density, and allow for short travel distances; these characteristics are all present in the post-reform settlement. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban metabolism; settlement-level planning; emergy; housing reform; sustainability indicators urban metabolism; settlement-level planning; emergy; housing reform; sustainability indicators
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, L.; Cui, S.; Yang, D.; Tang, L.; Vause, J.; Xiao, L.; Li, X.; Shi, L. Sustainability and Chinese Urban Settlements: Extending the Metabolism Model of Emergy Evaluation. Sustainability 2016, 8, 459.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top