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Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 400; doi:10.3390/su8040400

Urbanization and Sustainability: Comparison of the Processes in “BIC” Countries

1
Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China
2
Department of Land Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Abstract

The urbanized world has brought social, economic, and environmental sustainability into challenged surroundings in rapidly rising countries, thereby requiring the exploration of their intertwined relationships. This study regarded Brazil, India, and China as “BIC” countries to be the representative study areas for our investigation of sustainability in the context of rapid urbanization. In general, our work was synthesized into a comparison framework in four aspects: rural–urban relation, industrial development, city development, and urban landscape pattern. We determined that rural–urban dichotomy exists in all study areas, with India and China having a high degree. China was identified as a manufacturing-based country in the past half-century, whereas Brazil and India have the service sector as their primary industry. The distribution of large cities follows a regional pattern, with Brazil being northeast-focused, China being southeast-focused, and India being comparatively balanced. The Amazon forest in the north brings great challenges to Brazil with respect to the conservation of its biodiversity and eco-environment. India and China have encountered tremendous urban expansion or sprawl in the past several decades. The sustainability issues in social, economic, and environmental aspects for Brazil, India, and China were summarized in the context of rapid urbanization to provide references for other countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: urbanization; sustainability; Brazil; India; China urbanization; sustainability; Brazil; India; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zeng, C.; Deng, X.; Dong, J.; Hu, P. Urbanization and Sustainability: Comparison of the Processes in “BIC” Countries. Sustainability 2016, 8, 400.

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