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Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 361; doi:10.3390/su8040361

An Optimization System for Concrete Life Cycle Cost and Related CO2 Emissions

1
Building and Urban Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Daehwa-dong 283, Goyandae-Ro, ILsanseo-Gu, Goyang-Si 10223, Korea
2
School of Architecture & Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-Gu, Ansan-Si 15588, Korea
3
Department of Construction Management, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA
4
Department of Plant & Architectural Engineering, Kyonggi University, 154-42 Gwanggyosan-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon-Si 16227, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ioppolo
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3347 KB, uploaded 13 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

An optimization system that supports the production of concrete while minimizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions or costs is presented that incorporates an evolution algorithm for the materials’ mix design stage, a trigonometric function for the transportation stage, and a stochastic model for the manufacturing stage. A case study demonstrates that applying the optimization system reduced CO2 emissions by 34% compared to the standard concrete production processes typically used. When minimizing the cost of concrete production was prioritized, the cost dropped by 1% compared to the cost of conventional concrete production. These findings confirm that this optimization system helps with the design of the concrete mix and the choice of a material supplier, thus reducing both CO2 emissions and costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: concrete; life cycle assessment; CO2 emission; cost concrete; life cycle assessment; CO2 emission; cost
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, T.H.; Tae, S.H.; Suk, S.J.; Ford, G.; Yang, K.H. An Optimization System for Concrete Life Cycle Cost and Related CO2 Emissions. Sustainability 2016, 8, 361.

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