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Sustainability 2016, 8(2), 166; doi:10.3390/su8020166

The Principle of Integration in International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL) with Reference to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)

1
School of History, Politics, and Strategic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, National University of Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2
School of Law, College of Law, Government and International Studies (COLGIS), University Utara Malaysia (UUM), 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
3
Department of Science and Technology Studies, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
These authors equally contributed to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 9 February 2016
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Abstract

The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) does not explicitly refer to sustainable development despite the fact that other United Nations (UN) disarmament documents prescribe that international environmental law principles and sustainable development be considered among arms control agreements. This study’s objective is to utilize the principle of integration’s three components of environmental, economic, and social development, as found in the International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL) from the New Delhi Declaration (Delhi Declaration) of Principles of International Law Relating to Sustainable Development, in order to evaluate whether the BWC contains such components; thereby, making it possible for the BWC to contribute to sustainable development. The methodology of this study is necessarily qualitative, given that it is a socio-legal research that relies on international agreements such as the BWC, declarations, resolutions, plans of implementation, other non-binding documents of the UN, and secondary resources—all of which are analyzed through a document analysis. The results show that the BWC addresses the environment (Article II), prohibits transfers relating to export controls, international trade, and economic development (Article III), while at the same time, covering social development concerns, health, and diseases that make up the international social law (Article X). Since the BWC is found to be capable of contributing to sustainable development, it is concluded that ISDL cannot be restricted to international environmental, economic, and social law, but should be expanded to include international arms control law. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable development; International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL); Biological Weapons Convention (BWC); arms control sustainable development; International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL); Biological Weapons Convention (BWC); arms control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Majid, M.A.; Abdullah, N.A.; Noor, S.N.M.; Gan, C.K. The Principle of Integration in International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL) with Reference to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). Sustainability 2016, 8, 166.

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