Next Article in Journal
Sustainability Concept in Decision-Making: Carbon Tax Consideration for Joint Product Mix Decision
Next Article in Special Issue
The Eco-Evolutionary Imperative: Revisiting Weed Management in the Midst of an Herbicide Resistance Crisis
Previous Article in Journal
Foodsheds and City Region Food Systems in Two West African Cities
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diversification, Yield and a New Agricultural Revolution: Problems and Prospects
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1231; doi:10.3390/su8121231

Indicators for the Analysis of Peasant Women’s Equity and Empowerment Situations in a Sustainability Framework: A Case Study of Cacao Production in Ecuador

1
Department of Investigation, Agrarian University of Ecuador, Guayaquil 090104, Ecuador
2
ISEC (Institute of Sociology and Peasant Studies), Cordoba University, 14071 Cordoba, Spain
3
Department of Applied Economics and Statistics, University of Leon, 24071 Leon, Spain
4
Prometeo Research, National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation, Quito 170526, Ecuador
5
Department of Applied Economics II, University of Seville, 41004 Seville, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carol Shennan
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Agroecology in Archieving Sustainable Agriculture)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1647 KB, uploaded 25 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Family agriculture is a fundamental pillar in the construction of agroecological agri-food alternatives fostering processes of sustainable rural development where social equity represents a central aspect. Despite agroecology’s critical openness, this area has not yet incorporated an explicit gender approach allowing an appropriate problematization and analysis of the cultural inequalities of gender relations in agriculture, women’s empowerment processes and their nexus with sustainability. This work presents an organized proposal of indicators to approach and analyze the degree of peasant women’s equity and empowerment within a wide sustainability framework. After a thorough bibliographical review, 34 equity and empowerment indicators were identified and organized into six basic theoretical dimensions. Following the collection of empirical data (from 20 cacao-producing families), the indicators were analyzed and reorganized on the basis of hierarchical cluster analysis and explanatory interdependence into a new set of six empirical dimensions: (1) access to resources, education and social participation; (2) economic-personal autonomy and self-esteem; (3) gender gaps (labor rights, health, work and physical violence); (4) techno-productive decision-making and remunerated work; (5) land ownership and mobility; and (6) diversification of responsibilities and social and feminist awareness. Additionally, a case study is presented that analyzes equity and empowerment in the lives of two rural cacao-producing peasant women in Ecuador. View Full-Text
Keywords: feminism; agroecology; gender indicators; empowerment; equity; sustainability feminism; agroecology; gender indicators; empowerment; equity; sustainability
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

de Marco Larrauri, O.; Pérez Neira, D.; Soler Montiel, M. Indicators for the Analysis of Peasant Women’s Equity and Empowerment Situations in a Sustainability Framework: A Case Study of Cacao Production in Ecuador. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1231.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top