Next Article in Journal
Assessing Sustainability of Mixed Use Neighbourhoods through Residents’ Travel Behaviour and Perception: The Case of Nagpur, India
Next Article in Special Issue
The Water Footprint of the Wine Industry: Implementation of an Assessment Methodology and Application to a Case Study
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Bayesian Analysis of Demand Elasticity in the Italian Electricity Market
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2015, 7(9), 12149-12163; doi:10.3390/su70912149

Sustainable Ethanol Production from Common Reed (Phragmites australis) through Simultaneuos Saccharification and Fermentation

CIRIAF-CRB Section, University of Perugia, Via G.Duranti 67, Perugia 06125, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francesco Asdrubali, Pietro Buzzini and Marc A. Rosen
Received: 8 June 2015 / Revised: 19 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1266 KB, uploaded 2 September 2015]   |  


Phragmites australis (common reed) is a perennial grass that grows in wetlands or near inland waterways. Due to its fast-growing properties and low requirement in nutrients and water, this arboreal variety is recognized as a promising source of renewable energy although it is one of the least characterized energy crops. In this experiment, the optimization of the bioethanol production process from Phragmites australis was carried out. Raw material was first characterized according to the standard procedure (NREL) to evaluate its composition in terms of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content. Common reed was pretreated by steam explosion process at three different severity factor (R0) values. The pretreatment was performed in order to reduce biomass recalcitrance and to make cellulose more accessible to enzymatic attack. After the pretreatment, a water insoluble substrate (WIS) rich in cellulose and lignin and a liquid fraction rich in pentose sugars (xylose and arabinose) and inhibitors were collected and analyzed. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the WIS was performed at three different solid loadings (SL) 10%, 15%, 20% (w/w). The same enzyme dosage, equal to 20% (g enzyme/g cellulose), was used for all the WIS loadings. The efficiency of the whole process was evaluated in terms of ethanol overall yield (g ethanol/100 g raw material). The maximum ethanol overall yields achieved were 16.56 and 15.80 g ethanol/100 g RM dry basis for sample AP10 and sample AP4.4, respectively. The yields were reached working at lower solid loading (10%) and at the intermediate LogR0 value for the former and at intermediate solid loading (15%) and high LogR0 value for the latter, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: steam explosion; Ethanol; simultaneous saccharification and fermentation; Phragmites australis steam explosion; Ethanol; simultaneous saccharification and fermentation; Phragmites australis

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cotana, F.; Cavalaglio, G.; Pisello, A.L.; Gelosia, M.; Ingles, D.; Pompili, E. Sustainable Ethanol Production from Common Reed (Phragmites australis) through Simultaneuos Saccharification and Fermentation. Sustainability 2015, 7, 12149-12163.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top