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Sustainability 2015, 7(5), 4938-4951; doi:10.3390/su7054938

Multivariate Analyses and Evaluation of Heavy Metals by Chemometric BCR Sequential Extraction Method in Surface Sediments from Lingdingyang Bay, South China

1
South China Sea Marine Engineering and Environment Institute, State Oceanic Administration People's Republic Of China, Guangzhou 510300, China
2
South China Sea Marine Environment Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration People's Republic Of China, Guangzhou 510915, China
3
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering Geology, SunYat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Torretta
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Abstract

Sediments in estuary areas are recognized as the ultimate reservoirs for numerous contaminants, e.g., toxic metals. Multivariate analyses by chemometric evaluation were performed to classify metal ions (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Pb, Ni and Cd) in superficial sediments from Lingdingyang Bay and to determine whether or not there were potential contamination risks based on the BCR sequential extraction scheme. The results revealed that Cd was mainly in acid-soluble form with an average of 75.99% of its total contents and thus of high potential availability, indicating significant anthropogenic sources, while Cr, As, Ni were enriched in the residual fraction which could be considered as the safest ingredients to the environment. According to the proportion of secondary to primary phases (KRSP), Cd had the highest bioavailable fraction and represented high or very high risk, followed by Pb and Cu with medium risks in most of samples. The combined evaluation of the Pollution Load Index (PLI) and the mean Effect Range Median Quotient (mERM-Q) highlighted that the greatest potential environmental risk area was in the northwest of Lingdingyang Bay. Almost all of the sediments had a 21% probability of toxicity. Additionally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that the survey region was significantly affected by two main sources of anthropogenic contributions: PC1 showed increased loadings of variables in acid-soluble and reducible fractions that were consistent with the input from industrial wastes (such as manufacturing, metallurgy, chemical industry) and domestic sewages; PC2 was characterized by increased loadings of variables in residual fraction that could be attributed to leaching and weathering of parent rocks. The results obtained demonstrated the need for appropriate remediation measures to alleviate soil pollution problem due to the more aggregation of potentially risky metals. Therefore, it is of crucial significance to implement the targeted strategies to tackle the contaminated sediments in Lingdingyang Bay. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal; BCR-sequential extraction; assessment; sediment; pollution control; environmental conservation; Lingdingyang Bay heavy metal; BCR-sequential extraction; assessment; sediment; pollution control; environmental conservation; Lingdingyang Bay
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, L.; Tian, H.; Yang, J.; Shi, P.; Lou, Q.; Waxi, L.; Ni, Z.; Peng, X. Multivariate Analyses and Evaluation of Heavy Metals by Chemometric BCR Sequential Extraction Method in Surface Sediments from Lingdingyang Bay, South China. Sustainability 2015, 7, 4938-4951.

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