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Sustainability 2015, 7(2), 2000-2027; doi:10.3390/su7022000

Analysis of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Lake and Reservoir Water Quality in China and Changes in Its Relationship with GDP from 2005 to 2010

1
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Xinjiekouwai Street No. 19, Beijing 100875, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, No. 8 Dayangfang, Beiyuan Street, Beijing 100012, China
3
Solid Waste and Chemical Management Center of MEP, No. 1 Yuhui South Road, Beijing 100029, China
4
Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca' Foscari Venice, Calle Larga S. Marta 2137, Venice 30123, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ram Babu Singh
Received: 22 October 2014 / Revised: 6 January 2015 / Accepted: 23 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
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Abstract

We analyzed the spatial distribution of lake and reservoir water quality in China, and the trends from 2005 to 2010, based on monitoring data from 28 large Chinese lakes and reservoirs. We used a comprehensive water pollution index (WPI) to describe water quality and also identified the major pollutants. Using GDP data, we analyzed the relationships between economic factors and water quality. We found that although the water quality of large reservoirs is improving or remaining stable, despite economic growth, the water quality of most lakes either did not change or worsened. The outlook is pessimistic, as water quality in most lakes has decreased to Grade V or worse. The water quality was lowest for northern lakes and highest for southern lakes due to a combination of the local industrial structure and lower rainfall in the north. The primary pollutants generally remained stable during the study period. For some lakes, fluoride and volatile phenols became the primary pollutants, indicating more diverse sources of contamination. We divided the 28 bodies of water into four types based on the median WPI and GDP. The dominant combinations were low WPI with low GDP and high WPI with high GDP, as a result of the balance among economic development, the natural environment and environmental policy. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic environment; water quality; temporal and spatial distribution; water pollution index; correlation analysis aquatic environment; water quality; temporal and spatial distribution; water pollution index; correlation analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Meng, X.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, X.; Zhan, J.; Chai, Y.; Critto, A.; Li, Y.; Li, J. Analysis of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Lake and Reservoir Water Quality in China and Changes in Its Relationship with GDP from 2005 to 2010. Sustainability 2015, 7, 2000-2027.

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