The Evaluation of Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Utilization in Beijing
AbstractThe water footprint approach is superior to the traditional approaches applied in water management. The water footprint can be regarded as a comprehensive indicator of freshwater resources appropriation, next to the traditional and restricted measure of water withdrawal. This study took the megacity of Beijing in North China as a case study to evaluate the sustainability of water utilization by calculating the water footprint in 2007 and 2010, based on real and virtual water consumption. The results show that the water footprint of the inhabitants of Beijing is decreasing, while the degree of water import dependency is increasing. Although the pressure of water scarcity in Beijing was slightly alleviated, the current situation of water shortage remains an enormous challenge, as the water footprint per capita is nearly 10 times higher than the water resources available. Therefore, water utilization in Beijing remains unsustainable. The improvement of water resources utilization efficiency, that encompasses water saving, is proposed as a key measure in the mitigation of water shortage. View Full-Text
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Ma, D.; Xian, C.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Ouyang, Z. The Evaluation of Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Utilization in Beijing. Sustainability 2015, 7, 13206-13221.
Ma D, Xian C, Zhang J, Zhang R, Ouyang Z. The Evaluation of Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Utilization in Beijing. Sustainability. 2015; 7(10):13206-13221.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ma, Dongchun; Xian, Chaofan; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ruochen; Ouyang, Zhiyun. 2015. "The Evaluation of Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Utilization in Beijing." Sustainability 7, no. 10: 13206-13221.