Sustainability 2014, 6(4), 2300-2319; doi:10.3390/su6042300
Article

Farm Models and Eco-Health of Poultry Production Clusters (PPCs) following Avian Influenza Epidemics in Thailand

Received: 4 December 2013; in revised form: 6 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Thailand is located in Southeast Asia and is a country that was affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics during 2003–2004. Nevertheless, the Thai government’s issuance policy of strict control and prevention of the disease has resulted in efficient disease control of avian influenza (AI). Poultry farmers have been both positively and negatively affected by this policy. There are three poultry cluster models worthy of attention in Thailand: (1) egg chicken poultry clusters over ponds; (2) egg chicken poultry clusters in coops raised from the ground and managed by a cooperative; and (3) poultry clusters in closed coops under contract with the private sector. Following the AI epidemics, additional poultry husbandry and biosecurity systems were developed, thereby generating income and improving the quality of life for poultry farmers. Nevertheless, raising large clusters of poultry in the same area results in disadvantages, particularly problems with both air and water pollution, depending upon the environments of each poultry model. Furthermore, the government’s policy for controlling AI during epidemics has had a negative effect on the relationship between officials and farmers, due to poultry destruction measures.
Keywords: poultry production clusters; PPCs; eco-health; avian influenza (AI); Thailand
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aengwanich, W. Farm Models and Eco-Health of Poultry Production Clusters (PPCs) following Avian Influenza Epidemics in Thailand. Sustainability 2014, 6, 2300-2319.

AMA Style

Aengwanich W. Farm Models and Eco-Health of Poultry Production Clusters (PPCs) following Avian Influenza Epidemics in Thailand. Sustainability. 2014; 6(4):2300-2319.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aengwanich, Worapol. 2014. "Farm Models and Eco-Health of Poultry Production Clusters (PPCs) following Avian Influenza Epidemics in Thailand." Sustainability 6, no. 4: 2300-2319.

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