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Sustainability, Volume 5, Issue 3 (March 2013), Pages 805-1355

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Open AccessArticle Landscape Evaluation for Restoration Planning on the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, USA
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 805-840; doi:10.3390/su5030805
Received: 21 November 2012 / Revised: 5 February 2013 / Accepted: 8 February 2013 / Published: 25 February 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (2879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Land managers in the western US are beginning to understand that early 20th century forests displayed complex patterns of composition and structure at several different spatial scales, that there was interplay between patterns and processes within and across scales, and that these conditions
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Land managers in the western US are beginning to understand that early 20th century forests displayed complex patterns of composition and structure at several different spatial scales, that there was interplay between patterns and processes within and across scales, and that these conditions have been radically altered by management. Further, they know that restoring integrity (see Definition of Terms) of these conditions has broad implications for the future sustainability (see Definition of Terms) of native species, ecosystem services, and ecological processes. Many are looking for methods to restore (see Definition of Terms) more natural landscape patterns of habitats and more naturally functioning disturbance regimes; all in the context of a warming climate. Attention is turning to evaluating whole landscapes at local and regional scales, deciphering recent changes in trajectories, and formulating landscape prescriptions that can restore ecological functionality and improve landscape resilience (see Definition of Terms). The business of landscape evaluation and developing landscape prescriptions is inherently complex, but with the advent of decision support systems, software applications are now available to conduct and document these evaluations. Here, we review several published landscape evaluation and planning applications designed with the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) software, and present an evaluation we developed in support of a landscape restoration project. We discuss the goals and design of the project, its methods and utilities, what worked well, what could be improved and related research opportunities. For readability and compactness, fine and broad-scale landscape evaluations that could be a part of multi-scale restoration planning, are not further developed here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Ecosystem Restoration)
Open AccessArticle Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 841-881; doi:10.3390/su5030841
Received: 22 December 2012 / Revised: 15 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 27 February 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts
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The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: “Information”; “Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials”; “Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems”; “Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals”, “Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures”; and “Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services”. Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Waste Management)
Open AccessArticle Wheat Cultivar Performance and Stability between No-Till and Conventional Tillage Systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 882-895; doi:10.3390/su5030882
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 31 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 February 2013 / Published: 28 February 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Washington, over fifty percent of the wheat produced under rainfed conditions receives less than 300 mm of annual precipitation. Hence, a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system has been established to obtain adequate moisture for winter wheat production. Current tilled fallow systems receive
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In Washington, over fifty percent of the wheat produced under rainfed conditions receives less than 300 mm of annual precipitation. Hence, a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system has been established to obtain adequate moisture for winter wheat production. Current tilled fallow systems receive significant soil erosion through both wind and water. As a result, no-till chemical fallow systems are being adopted to mitigate erosion concerns. The objective of this study was to evaluate current Pacific Northwest cultivars under no-till chemical fallow and tilled fallow systems to identify cultivars adapted to a late-planted no-till system. Twenty-one cultivars were planted in a split-plot design with fallow type as the main plot and genotype as the sub-plot. Four replications were planted at two locations over three years. Data was collected on heading date, grain yield and grain volume weight. Analysis of variance was conducted on data from each year and location. Results were significant for all traits. Cultivars in the late-planted no-till system yielded an average of 39% less than the tilled fallow system. It is evident that cultivars vary in their adaptability and yield stability across production systems. Chukar and Eltan displayed the highest levels of yield stability, and growers who wish to plant winter wheat in a late-planted no-till system may benefit from choosing these cultivars. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mind Sized World Models
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 896-911; doi:10.3390/su5030896
Received: 10 December 2012 / Revised: 31 January 2013 / Accepted: 8 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the factors that led to the wide rejection of the 1972 “Limits to Growth” report was the inability for most people to understand the model used in the study. In the present paper, the author builds simple “mind sized” world models
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One of the factors that led to the wide rejection of the 1972 “Limits to Growth” report was the inability for most people to understand the model used in the study. In the present paper, the author builds simple “mind sized” world models designed to convey to readers the main qualitative features of world modeling. These models turn out to provide results comparable to real-world historical cases and are similar to those generated by the more complex “World3” model used for the “Limits to Growth” study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 40th Anniversary of 'The Limits to Growth')
Open AccessArticle Coastal Innovation Paradox
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 912-933; doi:10.3390/su5030912
Received: 20 December 2012 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coasts are the primary habitat for humanity. Throughout history, coastal cities and towns have been a crucible for innovation. However, business and technological innovations imperil coastal communities, because prevailing practices are unsustainable. Consequently, coasts are the frontline in humanity’s endeavour to learn to
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Coasts are the primary habitat for humanity. Throughout history, coastal cities and towns have been a crucible for innovation. However, business and technological innovations imperil coastal communities, because prevailing practices are unsustainable. Consequently, coasts are the frontline in humanity’s endeavour to learn to live sustainably in the face of global change. Governance innovations have done little to stem the tide of unsustainable coastal activities. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to navigate a way out of the vulnerability trap that past innovation has unwittingly set. This is the first of two articles that examine, in turn, the coastal innovation paradox and the coastal innovation imperative. This article explains the coastal problématique and innovation paradox. Then, the nature and dimensions of innovation are outlined. Notwithstanding wholesale innovations in governance and public sector management, the sustainability crisis is deepening. Why is it so difficult to mobilize effective collective action for coastal sustainability? Locating coastal management within the wider milieu of evolving and multi-layered governance helps to answer this question. Resolving the coastal innovation paradox necessitates coherent innovation across governance episodes, processes and cultures. The second article posits a transformative foundation of deliberative coastal governance to foster innovation and facilitate the transition to coastal sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Coastal Innovation Imperative
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 934-954; doi:10.3390/su5030934
Received: 21 December 2012 / Revised: 17 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This is the second of two articles that explores the coastal innovation paradox and imperative. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to escape the vulnerability trap created by past innovations that have degraded coastal ecosystems and imperil coastal livelihoods. The innovation imperative is to reframe
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This is the second of two articles that explores the coastal innovation paradox and imperative. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to escape the vulnerability trap created by past innovations that have degraded coastal ecosystems and imperil coastal livelihoods. The innovation imperative is to reframe and underpin business and technology with coherent governance innovations that lead to social transformation for coastal sustainability. How might coastal management help to facilitate this transition? It is argued that coastal management needs to be reconceptualised as a transformative practice of deliberative coastal governance. A foundation comprising four deliberative or process outcomes is posited. The point of departure is to build human and social capital through issue learning and improved democratic attitudes and skills. Attention then shifts to facilitating community-oriented action and improving institutional capacity and decision-making. Together, these endeavours enable improved community problem-solving. The ultimate process goal is to build more collaborative communities. Instituting transformative deliberative coastal governance will help to stimulate innovations that chart new sustainability pathways and help to resolve the coastal problems. This framework could be adapted and applied in other geographical settings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Swedish Upper Secondary School Students’ Conceptions of Negative Environmental Impact and Pricing
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 982-996; doi:10.3390/su5030982
Received: 20 December 2012 / Revised: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 11 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study explores relationships between upper secondary school students’ understanding of prices and environmental impacts. The study uses responses from 110 students to problems in which they were asked to explain differences in prices and also to express and justify opinions on what
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This study explores relationships between upper secondary school students’ understanding of prices and environmental impacts. The study uses responses from 110 students to problems in which they were asked to explain differences in prices and also to express and justify opinions on what should be the difference in prices. Very few students expressed an environmental dimension in their understanding of price. A few students suggested that environmental impact influenced price by raising demand for “Environmentally friendly products”. A few students suggested that ‘environmentally friendly products’ had higher prices because they were more costly to produce. We found no examples of students combining both lines of explanation. However, nearly half of the students believed that prices should reflect environmental effects, and this reasoning was divided between cases where the point was justified by a broad environmental motivation and cases where the point was justified in relation to incentives–to get consumers to act in a more environmentally friendly way. Full article
Open AccessArticle Focal Areas for Measuring the Human Well-Being Impacts of a Conservation Initiative
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 997-1010; doi:10.3390/su5030997
Received: 31 December 2012 / Revised: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 16 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Within conservation, the need to measure the impacts on people from conservation initiatives such as projects and programs is growing, but understanding and measuring the multidimensional impacts on human well-being from conservation initiatives is complex. To understand the constituent components of human well-being
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Within conservation, the need to measure the impacts on people from conservation initiatives such as projects and programs is growing, but understanding and measuring the multidimensional impacts on human well-being from conservation initiatives is complex. To understand the constituent components of human well-being and identify which components of well-being are most common, we analyzed 31 known indices for measuring human well-being. We found 11 focal areas shared by two or more indices for measuring human well-being, and the focal areas of living standards, health, education, social cohesion, security, environment, and governance were in at least 14 of the 31 human well-being indices. We examined each of the common focal areas and assessed its relevance to measuring the human well-being impacts of a conservation initiative. We then looked for existing indices that include the relevant focal areas and recommend the use of Stiglitz et al. (2009)—a framework designed to measure economic performance and social progress—as a starting place for understanding and selecting human well-being focal areas suitable for measuring the impacts on people from a conservation initiative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring Socio-Economic Well-Being)
Open AccessArticle The Climate Adaptation Frontier
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1011-1035; doi:10.3390/su5031011
Received: 5 November 2012 / Revised: 7 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate adaptation has emerged as a mainstream risk management strategy for assisting in maintaining socio-ecological systems within the boundaries of a safe operating space. Yet, there are limits to the ability of systems to adapt. Here, we introduce the concept of an “adaptation
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Climate adaptation has emerged as a mainstream risk management strategy for assisting in maintaining socio-ecological systems within the boundaries of a safe operating space. Yet, there are limits to the ability of systems to adapt. Here, we introduce the concept of an “adaptation frontier”, which is defined as a socio-ecological system’s transitional adaptive operating space between safe and unsafe domains. A number of driving forces are responsible for determining the sustainability of systems on the frontier. These include path dependence, adaptation/development deficits, values conflicts and discounting of future loss and damage. The cumulative implications of these driving forces are highly uncertain. Nevertheless, the fact that a broad range of systems already persist at the edge of their frontiers suggests a high likelihood that some limits will eventually be exceeded. The resulting system transformation is likely to manifest as anticipatory modification of management objectives or loss and damage. These outcomes vary significantly with respect to their ethical implications. Successful navigation of the adaptation frontier will necessitate new paradigms of risk governance to elicit knowledge that encourages reflexive reevaluation of societal values that enable or constrain sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation or Extinction)
Open AccessArticle Asymmetrical Contributions to the Tragedy of the Commons and Some Implications for Conservation
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1036-1048; doi:10.3390/su5031036
Received: 17 December 2012 / Revised: 7 February 2013 / Accepted: 22 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (992 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Garrett Hardin’s popular essay on “The Tragedy of the Commons”, he presents a model of a shared commons where herdsmen graze their cattle to illustrate the tension between group and self-interest that characterizes so many social dilemmas. However, Hardin is not explicit
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In Garrett Hardin’s popular essay on “The Tragedy of the Commons”, he presents a model of a shared commons where herdsmen graze their cattle to illustrate the tension between group and self-interest that characterizes so many social dilemmas. However, Hardin is not explicit that consumption can actually vary widely among herdsman, although later, when discussing population growth, he clarifies that “people vary”. People do indeed vary, and here we explore further the prevalence of asymmetrical contributions to the tragedy of the commons. We also provide several examples to demonstrate that asymmetries have been frequently underappreciated by conservation initiatives. Given that many of today’s major environmental problems, such as climate change, freshwater shortages, and overfishing, are problems of users or groups of users over-consuming common resources asymmetrically, we believe identifying patterns of consumption is a necessary first step in solving any social dilemma, and can help elucidate priority areas for conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tragedy or Transcendence: Reflections on 'The Tragedy of the Commons')
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Open AccessArticle The Second-Image Reversed and Climate Policy: How International Influences Helped Changing Brazil’s Positions on Climate Change
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1049-1066; doi:10.3390/su5031049
Received: 6 November 2012 / Revised: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 12 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
International climate policy over the last 7–8 years has been characterized by the increasing involvement of developing countries. While COP-13 at Bali marked a stronger willingness to participate in mitigation efforts in principle, there are now numerous examples of domestic programs for mitigation
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International climate policy over the last 7–8 years has been characterized by the increasing involvement of developing countries. While COP-13 at Bali marked a stronger willingness to participate in mitigation efforts in principle, there are now numerous examples of domestic programs for mitigation by this group of countries. Brazil has gone furthest among developing countries, with a substantial voluntary commitment to reduce its emissions proclaimed in 2009. The dynamics behind the change in Brazil’s position are discussed, with a particular eye to the effects of international influences. In conjunction with important domestic changes, a set of interacting influences through a variety of pathways both changed preferences among important interest groups in Brazilian society towards favoring some kind of commitments and helped to change the structure of government forums and decision-making rules in a way that empowered reform-minded ministries. It is argued that this perspective, drawn from Peter Gourevitch’s idea of the “second image reversed”, is increasingly relevant for understanding the influence of the broad “regime complex” on climate change on politics in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coping with Climate Change in Developing Countries)
Open AccessArticle The Impacts of Spatial Planning on Degrowth
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1067-1079; doi:10.3390/su5031067
Received: 8 November 2012 / Revised: 31 January 2013 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the current growth economy has created severe environmental pollution and unbalanced distribution of prosperity, there is an increasing amount of critical voices calling for a change. The new concept of degrowth addresses a fundamental change in political, economic and institutional levels underpinning
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As the current growth economy has created severe environmental pollution and unbalanced distribution of prosperity, there is an increasing amount of critical voices calling for a change. The new concept of degrowth addresses a fundamental change in political, economic and institutional levels underpinning different norms and values towards sustainability. Spatial planning institutions have a decisive role in the transition process insofar as they take decisions regarding the use of land and its attributed space. Especially in three areas spatial planning has influential potentials to stimulate the transition process towards degrowth by enhancing: (i) a sustainable use of renewable energy sources; (ii) sustainable settlement structures; and (iii) the creation of social capital by more community based facilities. The paper explores these possibilities for intervention and shows how spatial planning can have positive impacts on degrowth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degrowth: The Economic Alternative for the Anthropocene)
Open AccessArticle Can We Model the Scenic Beauty of an Alpine Landscape?
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1080-1094; doi:10.3390/su5031080
Received: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 22 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the last decade, agriculture has lost its importance in many European mountain regions and tourism, which benefits from attractive landscapes, has become a major source of income. Changes in landscape patterns and elements might affect scenic beauty and therefore the socio-economic welfare
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During the last decade, agriculture has lost its importance in many European mountain regions and tourism, which benefits from attractive landscapes, has become a major source of income. Changes in landscape patterns and elements might affect scenic beauty and therefore the socio-economic welfare of a region. Our study aimed at modeling scenic beauty by quantifying the influence of landscape elements and patterns in relationship to distance. Focusing on Alpine landscapes in South and North Tyrol, we used a photographic questionnaire showing different landscape compositions. As mountain landscapes offer long vistas, we related scenic beauty to different distance zones. Our results indicate that the near zone contributes by 64% to the valuation of scenic beauty, the middle zone by 22%, and the far zone by 14%. In contrast to artificial elements, naturalness and diversity increased scenic beauty. Significant differences between different social groups (origin, age, gender, cultural background) occurred only between the local population and tourists regarding great landscape changes. Changes towards more homogenous landscapes were perceived negatively, thus political decision makers should support the conservation of the cultural landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring Socio-Economic Well-Being)
Open AccessArticle Discursive Overlap and Conflictive Fragmentation of Risk and Security in the Geopolitics of Energy
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1095-1113; doi:10.3390/su5031095
Received: 7 December 2012 / Revised: 23 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As it touches all aspects of human activity and society in general, energy has become an object of discourse. Two main discourses have formed on the use of energy: risk discourse and security discourse. While environmental changes and oil depletion continue, a new
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As it touches all aspects of human activity and society in general, energy has become an object of discourse. Two main discourses have formed on the use of energy: risk discourse and security discourse. While environmental changes and oil depletion continue, a new application for the term security has appeared: energy security. This concept can be interpreted within the terms of risk discourse, which is oriented towards rational consensus and decision making, or as an exercise of power, sovereignty and hegemony. The boundaries between interpretations are often unclear. Thus, in an institutional framework that has fragmented principles, norms and rules, opposing discourses will overlap. Political agents and institutions deploy strategies based on these discourses. With this overlapping of discourses, the performative powers of different institutions clash, thus creating conflictive fragmentation in a governance architecture. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the use of, replication of, and ambiguities surrounding the concept of energy security, so as to understand how and why these discourses overlap and the profound consequences that this overlap may have for present and future energy use, environmental negotiations, and political climate. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Urban (re-)Development with Building Integrated Energy, Water and Waste Systems
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1114-1127; doi:10.3390/su5031114
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 15 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The construction and service of urban infrastructure systems and buildings involves immense resource consumption. Cities are responsible for the largest component of global energy, water, and food consumption as well as related sewage and organic waste production. Due to ongoing global urbanization, in
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The construction and service of urban infrastructure systems and buildings involves immense resource consumption. Cities are responsible for the largest component of global energy, water, and food consumption as well as related sewage and organic waste production. Due to ongoing global urbanization, in which the largest sector of the global population lives in cities which are already built, global level strategies need to be developed that facilitate both the sustainable construction of new cities and the re-development of existing urban environments. A very promising approach in this regard is the decentralization and building integration of environmentally sound infrastructure systems for integrated resource management. This paper discusses such new and innovative building services engineering systems, which could contribute to increased energy efficiency, resource productivity, and urban resilience. Applied research and development projects in Germany, which are based on integrated system approaches for the integrated and environmentally sound management of energy, water and organic waste, are used as examples. The findings are especially promising and can be used to stimulate further research and development, including economical aspects which are crucial for sustainable urban (re-)development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Cities)
Open AccessArticle Creating a Learning Environment to Promote Food Sustainability Issues in Primary Schools? Staff Perceptions of Implementing the Food for Life Partnership Programme
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1128-1140; doi:10.3390/su5031128
Received: 25 January 2013 / Revised: 12 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 February 2013 / Published: 8 March 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is increasing interest in the role that schools can play in promoting education for sustainable development (ESD), and evidence is emerging that schools can be influential in the emerging agenda around the ecological, ethical and social aspects of food, diet and nutrition.
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There is increasing interest in the role that schools can play in promoting education for sustainable development (ESD), and evidence is emerging that schools can be influential in the emerging agenda around the ecological, ethical and social aspects of food, diet and nutrition. With regard to such food sustainability issues, this paper analyses the role of the Food for Life Partnership national programme in supporting garden and farm-based learning activities in 55 primary schools in England, UK. Using a mixed methods approach, the study examined the programme’s implementation through staff perceptions and a range of school change indicators. The study found that the programme delivery was associated with widespread institutional reforms. According to staff, implementation of the programme provided a range of opportunities for pupils to learn about food production and sustainability, but addressing these issues was challenging for teachers and raised a number of questions concerned with effective, equitable and on-going implementation. At a pedagogical level, teachers also reflected on conceptually challenging aspects of food sustainability as a topic for primary school education. The study identified ways that ESD programmes could support schools to think about and implement learning opportunities as well as identifying significant barriers related to resourcing such programmes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Microfoundations for Sustainable Growth with Eco-Intelligent Product Service-Arrangements
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1141-1160; doi:10.3390/su5031141
Received: 8 December 2012 / Revised: 20 February 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper argues that the contemporary growth paradigm needs to be reconsidered on a micro level of consumption and product service-systems. This becomes necessary since a dynamic link between macro strategies and micro implementation of sustainable growth is missing up to date. Therefore,
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This paper argues that the contemporary growth paradigm needs to be reconsidered on a micro level of consumption and product service-systems. This becomes necessary since a dynamic link between macro strategies and micro implementation of sustainable growth is missing up to date. Therefore, mainstream sustainability strategies of efficiency and consistency are extended by sufficiency in order to integrate strategies for individual welfare within their social environment. Limits to and drivers for growth are revised and updated socially in terms of qualitative values, diminishing marginal utility or symbolic social distinction. We elaborate a definition of sustainable growth that fosters individual welfare by enhancing social enactment within the boundaries of environmental space. Shifting focus on social aspects in design fosters more sustainable production and consumption patterns while sustaining individual welfare. We derive latent indications for eco-intelligent product service-arrangements and evaluate to concepts by referring to introduced definitions and according indications. With doing so, we illustrate new pathways for the translation of sustainable growth and strategies into product service-systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 40th Anniversary of 'The Limits to Growth')
Open AccessArticle Approaching the Processes in the Generator Circuit Breaker at Disconnection through Sustainability Concepts
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1161-1176; doi:10.3390/su5031161
Received: 16 January 2013 / Revised: 20 February 2013 / Accepted: 4 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
PDF Full-text (2125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, the electric connection circuits of power plants (based on fossil fuels as well as renewable sources) entail generator circuit-breakers (GCBs) at the generator terminals, since the presence of that electric equipment offers many advantages related to the sustainability of a power plant.
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Nowadays, the electric connection circuits of power plants (based on fossil fuels as well as renewable sources) entail generator circuit-breakers (GCBs) at the generator terminals, since the presence of that electric equipment offers many advantages related to the sustainability of a power plant. In an alternating current (a.c.) circuit the interruption of a short circuit is performed by the circuit-breaker at the natural passing through zero of the short-circuit current. During the current interruption, an electric arc is generated between the opened contacts of the circuit-breaker. This arc must be cooled and extinguished in a controlled way. Since the synchronous generator stator can flow via highly asymmetrical short-circuit currents, the phenomena which occur in the case of short-circuit currents interruption determine the main stresses of the generator circuit-breaker; the current interruption requirements of a GCB are significantly higher than for the distribution network circuit breakers. For shedding light on the proper moment when the generator circuit-breaker must operate, using the space phasor of the short-circuit currents, the time expression to the first zero passing of the short-circuit current is determined. Here, the manner is investigated in which various factors influence the delay of the zero passing of the short-circuit current. It is shown that the delay time is influenced by the synchronous machine parameters and by the load conditions which precede the short-circuit. Numerical simulations were conducted of the asymmetrical currents in the case of the sudden three-phase short circuit at the terminals of synchronous generators. Further in this study it is emphasized that although the phenomena produced in the electric arc at the terminals of the circuit-breaker are complicated and not completely explained, the concept of exergy is useful in understanding the physical phenomena. The article points out that just after the short-circuit current interruption by the generator the circuit-breaker (when the GCB has been subjected at the metal contact terminals to the high temperature of a plasma arc, up to 50,000 K) between its opened contacts, there arises the transient recovery voltage (TRV) which constitutes the most important dielectric stress after the electric arc extinction. Since the magnitude and shape of the TRV occurring across the generator circuit-breaker are critical parameters in the recovering gap after the current zero, in this paper, we model, for the case of the faults fed by the main step-up transformer, the equivalent configurations, with operational impedances, for the TRV calculation, taking into account the main transformer parameters, on the basis of the symmetrical components method. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bird Pollinator Visitation is Equivalent in Island and Plantation Planting Designs in Tropical Forest Restoration Sites
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1177-1187; doi:10.3390/su5031177
Received: 20 January 2013 / Revised: 2 February 2013 / Accepted: 13 February 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Active restoration is one strategy to reverse tropical forest loss. Given the dynamic nature of climates, human populations, and other ecosystem components, the past practice of using historical reference sites as restoration targets is unlikely to result in self-sustaining ecosystems. Restoring sustainable ecological
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Active restoration is one strategy to reverse tropical forest loss. Given the dynamic nature of climates, human populations, and other ecosystem components, the past practice of using historical reference sites as restoration targets is unlikely to result in self-sustaining ecosystems. Restoring sustainable ecological processes like pollination is a more feasible goal. We investigated how flower cover, planting design, and landscape forest cover influenced bird pollinator visits to Inga edulis trees in young restoration sites in Costa Rica. I. edulis trees were located in island plantings, where seedlings had been planted in patches, or in plantation plantings, where seedlings were planted to cover the restoration area. Sites were located in landscapes with scant (10–21%) or moderate (35–76%) forest cover. Trees with greater flower cover received more visits from pollinating birds; neither planting design nor landscape forest cover influenced the number of pollinator visits. Resident hummingbirds and a migratory bird species were the most frequent bird pollinators. Pollination in the early years following planting may not be as affected by details of restoration design as other ecological processes like seed dispersal. Future work to assess the quality of various pollinator species will be important in assessing this idea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Ecosystem Restoration)
Open AccessArticle Towards More Sustainable Ironmaking—An Analysis of Energy Wood Availability in Finland and the Economics of Charcoal Production
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1188-1207; doi:10.3390/su5031188
Received: 5 February 2013 / Revised: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 6 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Replacement of fossil carbon by renewable biomass-based carbon is an effective measure to mitigate CO2 emission intensity in the blast furnace ironmaking process. Depending on the substitution rate of fossil fuels, the required amount of biomass can be substantial. This raises questions
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Replacement of fossil carbon by renewable biomass-based carbon is an effective measure to mitigate CO2 emission intensity in the blast furnace ironmaking process. Depending on the substitution rate of fossil fuels, the required amount of biomass can be substantial. This raises questions about the availability of biomass for multiple uses. At the same time, the economic competitiveness of biomass-based fuels in ironmaking applications should also be a key consideration. In this assessment, availability of energy wood, i.e., logging residues, small-diameter wood and stumps, in Finland is discussed. Since biomass must be submitted to a thermochemical process before use in a blast furnace, the paper describes the production chain, from biomass to charcoal, and economics related to each processing step. The economics of biomass-based reducing agents is compared to fossil-based ones by taking into account the effect of European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). The assessment reveals that there would be sufficient amounts of energy wood available for current users as well as for ironmaking. At present, the economics of biomass-based reducing agents in ironmaking applications is unfavorable. High CO2 emission allowance prices would be required to make such a scheme competitive against fossil-based reducing agents at current fuel prices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decarbonised Economy)
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Attitudes-Action Gap in Household Resource Consumption: Does “Environmental Lifestyle” Segmentation Align with Consumer Behaviour?
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1211-1233; doi:10.3390/su5031211
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 12 February 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Consumption is a transcending challenge for the 21st century that is stimulating research on multiple pathways required to deliver a more environmentally sustainable future. This paper is nested in what is a much larger field of research on sustainable consumption and reports on
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Consumption is a transcending challenge for the 21st century that is stimulating research on multiple pathways required to deliver a more environmentally sustainable future. This paper is nested in what is a much larger field of research on sustainable consumption and reports on part of a major Australian Research Council study into the determinants of household resource consumption, based on a survey of 1,250 residents in Melbourne, Australia. Three environmental lifestyle segments are established that represent the spectrum of attitudes, opinions and intentions across the surveyed population: “committed” greens, “material” greens and “enviro-sceptics” (representing respectively 33.5%, 40.3% and 26.3% of the population). Each segment was found to display distinctive socio-demographic attributes, as well as urban geographies. However, few differences were found in relation to each segment’s actual consumption of energy, water, housing space, urban travel and domestic appliances. The research findings indicate that in these areas of urban resource consumption—all principal contributors to the ecological footprint of households—there are sets of factors at work that override attitudes, opinions and intentions as indicators of consumer behaviour. Some of these factors are information, organization and finance related and are the focus of much public policy. However, the persistence of well ingrained habits and practices among individuals and households and the lack of norms and values in western societies that explicitly promote environmental conservation among its population, are fundamentally involved in the attitude-action gap and constitute important avenues for future research and action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological and Behavioral Aspects of Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle The Future of the Food System: Cases Involving the Private Sector in South Africa
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1234-1255; doi:10.3390/su5031234
Received: 3 December 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (193 KB)
Abstract
The food system is facing unprecedented pressure from environmental change exacerbated by the expansion of agri-food corporations that are consolidating their power in the global food chain. Although Africa missed the Green Revolution and the wave of supermarket expansion that hit the West
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The food system is facing unprecedented pressure from environmental change exacerbated by the expansion of agri-food corporations that are consolidating their power in the global food chain. Although Africa missed the Green Revolution and the wave of supermarket expansion that hit the West and then spread to Asia and Latin America, this is unlikely to continue. With a large proportion of sub-Saharan African countries’ GDP still heavily reliant on agriculture, global trends in agri-food business are having an increasing impact on African countries. South Africa, a leader in agribusiness on the continent, has a well-established agri-food sector that is facing increasing pressure from various social and environmental sources. This paper uses interview data with corporate executives from South African food businesses to explore how they are adapting to the dual pressures of environmental change and globalisation. It shows that companies now have to adapt to macro-trends both within and outside the formal food sector and how this in turn has repercussions for building sustainable farming systems—both small and large-scale. It concludes with the recognition that building a sustainable food system is a complex process involving a diversity of actors, however changes are already being seen. Businesses have strategically recognised the need to align the economic bottom line with social and environmental factors, but real sustainability will only happen when all stakeholders are included in food governance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Chains)
Open AccessArticle Choice of Domestic Air-Sourced Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Systems through the Operational Energy Cost Implications in Scotland
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1256-1265; doi:10.3390/su5031256
Received: 4 December 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Scotland, homebuilders are requested to take valiant efforts to meet the government’s ambition that all newly built homes should be carbon-neutral by 2016/17. In delivering net zero carbon homes, the application of renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaic (PV) power generating
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In Scotland, homebuilders are requested to take valiant efforts to meet the government’s ambition that all newly built homes should be carbon-neutral by 2016/17. In delivering net zero carbon homes, the application of renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaic (PV) power generating systems, is almost inevitable. Cost-effectiveness of emerging green technologies is a major factor that affects stakeholders’ housing design decision-making on whether or not the innovations can be applied in practical terms. Based on the United Kingdom (UK) government’s Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) for energy rating of dwellings, this study conducted a comparative value assessment of 19 design alternatives set. The options also included ones that encompassed both electricity and heat generation potentials of PV applications—i.e., air-sourced PV thermal (PV/T) systems. Based on the SAP simulation results, it concluded that operational energy use and cost, as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) emission levels, can drastically be reduced particularly when a PV/T system is combined with a low-energy and high-performance mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) system that can extract fresh air heated by PV. This study led to visualizing the cost-effectiveness of PV/T MVHR systems and identifying the economic value over 10 years at the interest rate of 10%, based on an assumption that the innovations are applied to Scottish homes today. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Design and Construction)
Open AccessArticle Conservation Psychology: A Gap in Current Australian Undergraduate Psychology Education?
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1266-1281; doi:10.3390/su5031266
Received: 20 December 2012 / Revised: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human actions have contributed to numerous environmental challenges, including climate change and a significant loss of the world’s biodiversity. As the scientific study of human thought and behaviour, psychology has much to offer in better understanding these issues, as well as fostering greater
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Human actions have contributed to numerous environmental challenges, including climate change and a significant loss of the world’s biodiversity. As the scientific study of human thought and behaviour, psychology has much to offer in better understanding these issues, as well as fostering greater sustainability in human actions. Yet, despite this recognition, and increasing calls from leaders in psychology education to produce graduates capable of applying their disciplinary knowledge to such real-world issues to solve worldwide behaviourally-based problems; this may not be adequately addressed in current psychology training. The present study assessed the content of all APAC (Australian Psychology Accreditation Council) approved psychology programs within Australia to determine the proportion which offered a psychology-focused course (unit) specifically in conservation or sustainability. Based on the data advertised through each university website, it appears that only one of 39 programs currently offers such a course, with one other university implementing a conservation psychology course in 2013. Thus 95% of current APAC-accredited programs in Australia do not have a strong focus on training psychology graduates to contribute to addressing these important issues. The need for greater integration of conservation psychology content into undergraduate psychology education in Australia and beyond is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological and Behavioral Aspects of Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Plant Species Restoration: Effects of Different Founding Patterns on Sustaining Future Population Size and Genetic Diversity
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1304-1316; doi:10.3390/su5031304
Received: 2 January 2013 / Revised: 1 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 March 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Efforts to sustain the earth’s biodiversity will include the establishment and manipulation of isolated rescue populations, derived either via in situ fragmentation, or under ex situ circumstances. For target species, especially those with limited propagation resources, major goals of such projects include both
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Efforts to sustain the earth’s biodiversity will include the establishment and manipulation of isolated rescue populations, derived either via in situ fragmentation, or under ex situ circumstances. For target species, especially those with limited propagation resources, major goals of such projects include both the optimization of population size and the preservation of genetic diversity. Such rescue populations will be founded in a variety of ways, but little is known about how the geometric patterning of founders can affect population growth and genetic diversity retention. We have developed a computer program, NEWGARDEN, to investigate this issue for plant species that vary in life history characteristics. To use NEWGARDEN, input files are created that specify the size and structure of the preserve, the positioning and genetic diversity of the founders, and life history characteristics of the species (e.g., age-specific reproduction and mortality; gene dispersal distances; rates of selfing, etc.). The program conducts matings with consequent offspring establishment such that the virtual population develops through generations as constrained by the input. Output statistics allow comparisons of population development for populations that differ in one or more input conditions. Here, with NEWGARDEN analyses modeling a triennial species, we show that rescue population project managers will often have to carefully consider the geometric placement of founders to minimize effort expended while maximizing population growth and conservation of genetic diversity, such considerations being heavily dependent on the life history characteristics of particular species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Ecosystem Restoration)
Open AccessArticle Restoring Native Forest Understory: The Influence of Ferns and Light in a Hawaiian Experiment
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1317-1339; doi:10.3390/su5031317
Received: 12 January 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2013 / Accepted: 15 February 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ecological restoration is an increasingly important component of sustainable land management. We explore potential facilitative relationships for enhancing the cost-effectiveness of restoring native forest understory, focusing on two factors: (1) overstory shade and (2) possible facilitation by a fern (Dryopteris wallichiana),
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Ecological restoration is an increasingly important component of sustainable land management. We explore potential facilitative relationships for enhancing the cost-effectiveness of restoring native forest understory, focusing on two factors: (1) overstory shade and (2) possible facilitation by a fern (Dryopteris wallichiana), one of few native colonists of pasture in our montane Hawaiˈi study system. We planted 720 understory tree seedlings and over 4000 seeds of six species under six planting treatments: a full factorial combination of low, medium and high light, situating plantings in either the presence or absence of a mature fern. After three years, 75% of outplanted seedlings survived. Seedling survivorship was significantly higher in the presence of a fern (79% vs. 71% without a fern) and in medium and low light conditions (81% vs. 64% in high light). Relative height was highest at low to medium light levels. After 2.2 years, 2.8% of the planted seeds germinated. We observed no significant differences in seed germination relative to light level or fern presence. Analyzing several approaches, we found nursery germination of seeds followed by outplanting ca. 20% less costly than direct seeding in the field. This study opens new questions about facilitation mechanisms that have the potential to increase the extent and effectiveness of restoration efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Ecosystem Restoration)
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Open AccessArticle Increasing Woody Species Diversity for Sustainable Limestone Quarry Reclamation in Canada
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1340-1355; doi:10.3390/su5031340
Received: 31 December 2012 / Revised: 17 February 2013 / Accepted: 21 February 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental sustainability of post mined limestone quarries often requires reclamation to a diverse woody plant community. Woody species diversity may be severely limited if only nursery stock is relied on for propagation material; thus other sources must be evaluated. To address woody species
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Environmental sustainability of post mined limestone quarries often requires reclamation to a diverse woody plant community. Woody species diversity may be severely limited if only nursery stock is relied on for propagation material; thus other sources must be evaluated. To address woody species establishment and survival from different propagule sources at a limestone quarry in western Canada, native trees (4) and shrubs (3) were seeded and transplanted into amended substrates (wood shavings, clean fill, unamended control) in two seasons (spring, fall). Plant sources were nursery stock, local forest wildlings, seeds and forest soil (LFH mineral soil mix). Plant emergence, survival, height, health and browsing were evaluated over four years. Survival was greater with fall transplanted seedlings than with spring transplanted. Survival was greater for Picea glauca, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides from nursery than local source stock. Seedlings from seeds and LFH did not survive for any of the species. Growth and survival were affected by bighorn sheep. Amendments did not improve plant establishment. Diversity of the woody plant community was increased at the quarry in spite of the severe conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Ecosystem Restoration)

Review

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Open AccessReview Adapt or Perish: A Review of Planning Approaches for Adaptation under Deep Uncertainty
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 955-979; doi:10.3390/su5030955
Received: 21 November 2012 / Revised: 28 January 2013 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is increasing interest in long-term plans that can adapt to changing situations under conditions of deep uncertainty. We argue that a sustainable plan should not only achieve economic, environmental, and social objectives, but should be robust and able to be adapted over
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There is increasing interest in long-term plans that can adapt to changing situations under conditions of deep uncertainty. We argue that a sustainable plan should not only achieve economic, environmental, and social objectives, but should be robust and able to be adapted over time to (unforeseen) future conditions. Large numbers of papers dealing with robustness and adaptive plans have begun to appear, but the literature is fragmented. The papers appear in disparate journals, and deal with a wide variety of policy domains. This paper (1) describes and compares a family of related conceptual approaches to designing a sustainable plan, and (2) describes several computational tools supporting these approaches. The conceptual approaches all have their roots in an approach to long-term planning called Assumption-Based Planning. Guiding principles for the design of a sustainable adaptive plan are: explore a wide variety of relevant uncertainties, connect short-term targets to long-term goals over time, commit to short-term actions while keeping options open, and continuously monitor the world and take actions if necessary. A key computational tool across the conceptual approaches is a fast, simple (policy analysis) model that is used to make large numbers of runs, in order to explore the full range of uncertainties and to identify situations in which the plan would fail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation or Extinction)
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Other

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Open AccessNew Book Received Sustainable Leadership: Leadership from the Heart. By Steen Hildebrandt and Michael Stubberup, Copenhagen Press, 2012; 280 Pages. Price $29.99, ISBN 978-87-7853-207-7
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 980-981; doi:10.3390/su5030980
Received: 26 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We must develop a serious approach to the fact that emotions, thoughts, assessments, and decisions originate in the mind, and as such are firmly based in human beings. We sense, experience, and act on the basis of internal processes, but which criteria constitute
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We must develop a serious approach to the fact that emotions, thoughts, assessments, and decisions originate in the mind, and as such are firmly based in human beings. We sense, experience, and act on the basis of internal processes, but which criteria constitute the basis of these processes and how does the internal “control system”, which we all have, function? Moreover, we need to take a closer look at the ways in which the organic and sustainable mechanisms of our living organisms are optimized and explicated. Otto Scharmer calls this process going from ego-system-awareness to eco-system-awareness. These are some of the questions which are at the heart of this book. Full article
Open AccessBrief Report Advances in Sustainability: Contributions and Outcomes of the 2nd World Sustainability Forum
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1208-1210; doi:10.3390/su5031208
Received: 13 March 2013 / Accepted: 13 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
PDF Full-text (391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
After a successful start in 2011, the 2nd World Sustainability Forum (WSF) was held on sciforum.net from 1–30 November 2012. More than 80 papers were presented and over 180 authors contributed to the multidisciplinary conference. The objective of this short report is to
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After a successful start in 2011, the 2nd World Sustainability Forum (WSF) was held on sciforum.net from 1–30 November 2012. More than 80 papers were presented and over 180 authors contributed to the multidisciplinary conference. The objective of this short report is to sum up the contributions and discussions of the 2nd World Sustainability Forum. It is organized as follows. First, some general information on the Forum is given, then a summary of the contributions to the different sections, as well as providing an overview of the discussions. A final section including an outlook to the 3rd World Sustainability Forum concludes the article. Full article
Open AccessEssay The World is Yours: “Degrowth”, Racial Inequality and Sustainability
Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1282-1303; doi:10.3390/su5031282
Received: 30 October 2012 / Revised: 7 January 2013 / Accepted: 7 February 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
PDF Full-text (119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In French economist Serge Latouche’s 2009 book, Farewell to Growth, Latouche discusses “degrowth” in great detail, but he also explains how racial bias (and bias in general) in the world today has no place in a post-GDP world that embraces the principles
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In French economist Serge Latouche’s 2009 book, Farewell to Growth, Latouche discusses “degrowth” in great detail, but he also explains how racial bias (and bias in general) in the world today has no place in a post-GDP world that embraces the principles outlined in “degrowth” or, as he calls it, décroissance. Latouche writes in Farewell to Growth that “we resist, and must resist all forms of racism and discrimination (skin color, sex, religion, ethnicity)”, biases he insist are “all too common in the West today.” Latouche’s ideas are important for considering “degrowth”, because racial bias and the historical problems presented by that bias, in the United States, continues despite efforts to address it in a significant manner. The World is Yours discusses “degrowth” , economic growth and racial inequality, seeking to not only provide a better understanding of the recent social, legal and political meaning of these terms, but also the difficulties presented by these ideas today in a world increasingly committed to economic growth, even at the expense of human existence. How can a new economic paradigm be pursued that is more sustainable? Will African-Americans and other groups of color and nations of color accept “degrowth” if the US begins to implement a real sustainable agenda that addresses racial inequality? Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degrowth: The Economic Alternative for the Anthropocene)

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