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Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) for the Electrical Heating of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs
Universidad del Turabo, 00778 Gurabo, Puerto Rico
Received: 10 June 2011; in revised form: 1 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
Abstract: We model the low frequency electrical heating of submarine methane hydrate deposits located at depths between 1000 and 1500 m, and determine the energy return on energy invested (EROI) for this process. By means of the enthalpy method, we calculate the time-dependent heating of these deposits under applied electrical power supplied to a cylindrical heater located at the center of the reservoir and at variable depths. The conversion of the produced water to steam is avoided by limiting the heater temperature. We calculate the volume of methane hydrate that will melt and the energy equivalent of the gas thus generated. The partial energy efficiency of this heating process is obtained as the ratio of the gas equivalent energy to the applied electrical energy. We obtain EROI values in the range of 4 to 5, depending on the location of the heater. If the methane gas is used to generate the electrical energy required in the heating (in processes with a 33% efficiency), the effective EROI of the process falls in the range of 4/3 to 5/3.
Keywords: EROI; methane hydrates; electrical heating; electromagnetic heating; moving boundary problems; enthalpy method
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MDPI and ACS Style
Callarotti, R.C. Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) for the Electrical Heating of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs. Sustainability 2011, 3, 2105-2114.
Callarotti RC. Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) for the Electrical Heating of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs. Sustainability. 2011; 3(11):2105-2114.
Callarotti, Roberto Cesare. 2011. "Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) for the Electrical Heating of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs." Sustainability 3, no. 11: 2105-2114.