Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sustainability 2011, 3(11), 2105-2114; doi:10.3390/su3112105
Article

Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) for the Electrical Heating of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs

Received: 10 June 2011; in revised form: 1 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 7 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies in EROI (Energy Return on Investment))
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [332 KB, uploaded 7 November 2011]
Abstract: We model the low frequency electrical heating of submarine methane hydrate deposits located at depths between 1000 and 1500 m, and determine the energy return on energy invested (EROI) for this process. By means of the enthalpy method, we calculate the time-dependent heating of these deposits under applied electrical power supplied to a cylindrical heater located at the center of the reservoir and at variable depths. The conversion of the produced water to steam is avoided by limiting the heater temperature. We calculate the volume of methane hydrate that will melt and the energy equivalent of the gas thus generated. The partial energy efficiency of this heating process is obtained as the ratio of the gas equivalent energy to the applied electrical energy. We obtain EROI values in the range of 4 to 5, depending on the location of the heater. If the methane gas is used to generate the electrical energy required in the heating (in processes with a 33% efficiency), the effective EROI of the process falls in the range of 4/3 to 5/3.
Keywords: EROI; methane hydrates; electrical heating; electromagnetic heating; moving boundary problems; enthalpy method EROI; methane hydrates; electrical heating; electromagnetic heating; moving boundary problems; enthalpy method
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Callarotti, R.C. Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) for the Electrical Heating of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs. Sustainability 2011, 3, 2105-2114.

AMA Style

Callarotti RC. Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) for the Electrical Heating of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs. Sustainability. 2011; 3(11):2105-2114.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Callarotti, Roberto Cesare. 2011. "Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) for the Electrical Heating of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs." Sustainability 3, no. 11: 2105-2114.


Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert