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Sustainability 2011, 3(1), 21-34; doi:10.3390/su3010021
Article

Effects of Population Growth and Climate Variability on Sustainable Groundwater in Mali, West Africa

1,* , 1
 and 2
Received: 5 November 2010; in revised form: 16 December 2010 / Accepted: 17 December 2010 / Published: 23 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Groundwater)
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Abstract: Groundwater is increasingly relied on as a source of potable water in developing countries, but factors such as population growth, development, and climate variability, pose potential challenges for ongoing sustainable supply. The effect of these factors on the groundwater system was considered in four scenarios using a numerical model to represent the Bani area of Mali, West Africa. By 2040, population growth, climate variability, and development as urbanization, agriculture, and industry creates scenarios in which groundwater extraction is an increasingly larger percentage of the groundwater system. Consumption from agriculture and industry increases extraction rates from less than 1 to 3.8% of mean annual precipitation, which will likely affect the groundwater system. For instance, concentrated pumping in local areas may result in water level declines. The results of this study contribute to an ongoing evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources in West Africa.
Keywords: groundwater; sustainability; climate; population growth groundwater; sustainability; climate; population growth
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lutz, A.; Thomas, J.M.; Keita, M. Effects of Population Growth and Climate Variability on Sustainable Groundwater in Mali, West Africa. Sustainability 2011, 3, 21-34.

AMA Style

Lutz A, Thomas JM, Keita M. Effects of Population Growth and Climate Variability on Sustainable Groundwater in Mali, West Africa. Sustainability. 2011; 3(1):21-34.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lutz, Alexandra; Thomas, James M.; Keita, Mamadou. 2011. "Effects of Population Growth and Climate Variability on Sustainable Groundwater in Mali, West Africa." Sustainability 3, no. 1: 21-34.


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