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Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2953; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082953

How Far Has China’s Urbanization Gone?

1,2,3,* , 2
and
4,5,6
1
Center for Economic Development Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2
Department of City and Regional Planning, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
3
Population, Resources and Environment Economics Research Center, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
4
Department of Economics, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
5
American Public University Systems, Charles Town, WV 25414, USA
6
University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ 85040, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Abstract

China’s rapid urbanization has attracted wide international attention. However, it may not be sustainable. In order to assess it objectively and put forward recommendations for future development, this paper first develops a four-dimensional Urbanization Quality Index using weights calculated by the Deviation Maximization Method for a comprehensive assessment and then reveals the spatial association of China’s urbanization by Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis. The study leads to three major findings. First, the urbanization quality in China has gradually increased over time, but there have been significant differences between regions. Second, the four aspects of urbanization quality have shown the following trends: (i) the quality of urban development has steadily increased; (ii) the sustainability of urban development has shown a downward trend in recent years; (iii) the efficiency of urbanization improved before 2006 but then declined slightly due to capital, land use, and resource efficiency constraints; (IV) the urban–rural integration deteriorated in the early years but then improved over time. Third, although the urbanization quality has a significantly positive global spatial autocorrelation, the local spatial autocorrelation varies between eastern and western regions. Based on these findings, this paper concludes with policy recommendations for improving urbanization quality and its sustainability in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: urbanization quality; urbanization quality index; sustainable urbanization; assessment; deviation maximization method; spatial autocorrelation; China urbanization quality; urbanization quality index; sustainable urbanization; assessment; deviation maximization method; spatial autocorrelation; China
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Xiao, Y.; Song, Y.; Wu, X. How Far Has China’s Urbanization Gone? Sustainability 2018, 10, 2953.

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