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Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030721

Erbium Salts as Non-Toxic Catalysts Compatible with Alternative Reaction Media

1
Department of Health Sciences, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Telematica San Raffaele, Via di Val Cannuta, 247, 00166 Roma, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università della Calabria Cubo 12C, Arcavacata, 87036 Rende, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Farmacia e Scienze della Salute e della Nutrizione, Edificio Polifunzionale, Università della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende, 87030 Cosenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Sustainable Catalysts)
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Abstract

Green catalysts must be non-toxic, easy to manage, able to be recovered and reused, active under alternative reaction conditions and cheap. Erbium salts meet all the previously listed characteristics and today they are emerging as a valuable catalytic solution to a number of organic transformations needing a Lewis acid catalyst in wet conditions or under alternative heating sources. This review aims to summarize the application of erbium salts in green organic transformations, with particular emphasis on their versatility under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. The erbium salts’ role in bifunctional catalysis is also presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: erbium chloride; erbium triflate; Lewis acid catalyst; bifunctional catalysts erbium chloride; erbium triflate; Lewis acid catalyst; bifunctional catalysts
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Oliverio, M.; Nardi, M.; Costanzo, P.; Di Gioia, M.L.; Procopio, A. Erbium Salts as Non-Toxic Catalysts Compatible with Alternative Reaction Media. Sustainability 2018, 10, 721.

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