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Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 89; doi:10.3390/su10010089

Possibilities of Using the Tourism Area Life Cycle Model to Understand and Provide Sustainable Solution for Tourism Development in the Antarctic Region

1
Department of Natural Environment Sciencies, Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, University School of Physical Education in Krakow, 31-571 Krakow, Poland
2
Unit of Biochemistry, Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 33-332 Krakow, Poland
3
Department of Organisation and Management, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
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Abstract

An important problem for the development of tourism in the polar regions is the determination of the limit of tourist traffic that these regions can accept, without risking the degradation of the environment. One such region is Antarctica. This article describes the environmental conditions of Antarctica that decide its attractiveness for tourists, as well as its political and legal status. The factors that determine a tourist reception area of increasing intensity are analyzed. Based on the data of the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO), the volume of tourist traffic was determined, and environmental problems identified, which result from tourism development in Antarctica. The model of R.W. Butler—Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC)—was used to analyze the development of tourism. By the middle of the second decade of the 21st century, the number of tourists in the Antarctic region exceeded 40 thousand, which seems to be the largest figure (the “boom phase” in the Butler cycle) in sheer numbers, and which resulted in the introduction of less tourist-friendly behavior, from the point of view of environmental protection. On the basis of IAATO data, the environmental problems that are a consequence of the development of tourism in Antarctica are identified. Reference is made to climate change affecting the area, and on the basis of the Butler cycle, the hypothetical limits of the further development of tourism are described. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antarctica; exploration; tourism; Butler cycle; development boundaries; sustainable development Antarctica; exploration; tourism; Butler cycle; development boundaries; sustainable development
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Kruczek, Z.; Kruczek, Z.; Kruczek, M.; Szromek, A.R. Possibilities of Using the Tourism Area Life Cycle Model to Understand and Provide Sustainable Solution for Tourism Development in the Antarctic Region. Sustainability 2018, 10, 89.

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