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Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010121

Gender Factors and Inclusive Economic Growth: The Silent Revolution

1
Department of Business Management, University of León, 24071 León, Spain
2
IME, Center of Women Studies, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
3
School of Economics, Universidad Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión, 0051063 Pasco, Peru
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 6 January 2018
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Abstract

The gender factors that trigger economic growth in both high- and low-income countries were investigated in this study. To address these gender factors, four characteristic dimensions of gender inclusion were considered: education, access to the labor market, fertility, and democracy. The relationship between economic growth and gender factors was analyzed in a sample of 127 countries. Value and robustness were added to the results using dynamic models applied to panel data while accounting for endogeneity. We conclude that high fertility in women has negative effects on economic growth. However, when women have greater access to secondary education and the labor market in conditions of equality, the effects are positive. Similarly, the access of women to active political participation has significant effects on economic growth. Overall, this study helps identify which gender factors may promote inclusive economic growth, which is economic growth achieved when both men and women are incorporated in equal conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: gender factors; inclusive economic growth; education; labor force; fertility; democracy gender factors; inclusive economic growth; education; labor force; fertility; democracy
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Cabeza-García, L.; Del Brio, E.B.; Oscanoa-Victorio, M.L. Gender Factors and Inclusive Economic Growth: The Silent Revolution. Sustainability 2018, 10, 121.

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