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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 9, Issue 2 (August 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Capacity Recovery Effect in Lithium Sulfur Batteries for Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020034
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Lithium sulfur batteries have a promisingly high theoretical specific energy density of about 2600 Wh/kg and an expected practical specific energy density of about 500–600 Wh/kg. Therefore, it is a highly promising future energy storage technology for electric vehicles. Beside these advantages, this
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Lithium sulfur batteries have a promisingly high theoretical specific energy density of about 2600 Wh/kg and an expected practical specific energy density of about 500–600 Wh/kg. Therefore, it is a highly promising future energy storage technology for electric vehicles. Beside these advantages, this technology shows a low cell capacity at high discharge currents. Due to the capacity recovery effect, up to 20 % of the total cell capacity becomes available again with some rest time. This study shows a newly-developed capacity recovery model for lithium sulfur batteries. Due to the long rest periods of electric vehicles, this effect has an important influence on the usable cell capacity and depth of discharge in lithium sulfur batteries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Trucks
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020033
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
Heavy-duty trucks are one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in German traffic. Drivetrain electrification is an option to reduce tailpipe emissions by increasing energy conversion efficiency. To evaluate the vehicle’s environmental impacts, it is necessary to consider the entire life
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Heavy-duty trucks are one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in German traffic. Drivetrain electrification is an option to reduce tailpipe emissions by increasing energy conversion efficiency. To evaluate the vehicle’s environmental impacts, it is necessary to consider the entire life cycle. In addition to the daily use, it is also necessary to include the impact of production and disposal. This study presents the comparative life cycle analysis of a parallel hybrid and a conventional heavy-duty truck in long-haul operation. Assuming a uniform vehicle glider, only the differing parts of both drivetrains are taken into account to calculate the environmental burdens of the production. The use phase is modeled by a backward simulation in MATLAB/Simulink considering a characteristic driving cycle. A break-even analysis is conducted to show at what mileage the larger CO2eq emissions due to the production of the electric drivetrain are compensated. The effect of parameter variation on the break-even mileage is investigated by a sensitivity analysis. The results of this analysis show the difference in CO2eq/t km is negative, indicating that the hybrid vehicle releases 4.34 g CO2eq/t km over a lifetime fewer emissions compared to the diesel truck. The break-even analysis also emphasizes the advantages of the electrified drivetrain, compensating the larger emissions generated during production after already a distance of 15,800 km (approx. 1.5 months of operation time). The intersection coordinates, distance, and CO2eq, strongly depend on fuel, emissions for battery production and the driving profile, which lead to nearly all parameter variations showing an increase in break-even distance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Electric Vehicles in Rural Demand-Responsive Systems: Findings of Two Demand Responsive Transport Projects for the Improvement of Service Provision
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020032
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
To fill in mobility gaps, volunteer-based flexible transit solutions have been successfully implemented in Germany since early 1980s. These concepts have evolved to address a diverse array of needs and situations, and to incorporate new solutions and technologies. Such is the case of
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To fill in mobility gaps, volunteer-based flexible transit solutions have been successfully implemented in Germany since early 1980s. These concepts have evolved to address a diverse array of needs and situations, and to incorporate new solutions and technologies. Such is the case of electrical vehicles (EVs), which have found an application in these systems through state-run initiatives seeking to promote sustainable mobility. This article presents two electric-car volunteer-based rural demand-responsive services, namely, a Buerger(ruf)auto (Dial-a-ride or “Citizen-operated-car”) and a Buergerbus (“Citizen-operated-bus”). The article outlines specific aspects of the EVs that are used, which need to be addressed to in order to achieve an operational efficiency that is comparable to an equivalent service using internal combustion vehicles. Specific challenges are identified, namely in relation to the technological limitations, and the size and characteristic of the vehicles required. In addition, specific challenges include the need for the vehicle components that allow data gathering directly from the car’s electric motor in order to analyze the car’s performance under different operational conditions. The article mentions the issues explicitly and specifies what would be required of electrical vehicles to become an asset in the provision of demand-responsive systems in rural settings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimating Real-World Emissions of PHEVs in Norway by Combining Laboratory Measurement with User Surveys
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020031
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
The paper presents the results of experimental testing of the exhaust emission and energy consumption of two gasoline plug-in hybrid vehicles in an emission testing laboratory with different drive cycles and drive modes and at summer and winter temperatures. One was a compact
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The paper presents the results of experimental testing of the exhaust emission and energy consumption of two gasoline plug-in hybrid vehicles in an emission testing laboratory with different drive cycles and drive modes and at summer and winter temperatures. One was a compact vehicle with a type approval electric mode range of 50 km, the other a mid-sized vehicle with an electric mode range of 31 km. Additionally, an online survey of 2065 private plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) owners investigated the usage pattern of the vehicles. Combining the laboratory tests with the user survey results provided an estimate for the reduction of CO2-emission of PHEVs in use in Norway. The main conclusion is that the PHEV is a vehicle type that needs to match well with the use pattern to produce low CO2- and local emissions. The achievable CO2-emission reduction was proportional to the range in electric drive-mode (E-mode), i.e., 50 km range resulted in about 50% reduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Taxation of Electric Vehicles in Europe: A Methodology for Comparison
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020030
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 July 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
In Europe, a heterogeneous range of national vehicle taxation systems exists in parallel, so that a simple comparison of electric vehicle (xEV) tax advantages is not straightforward. In this contribution, various European vehicle taxation systems are examined and a methodology is introduced which
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In Europe, a heterogeneous range of national vehicle taxation systems exists in parallel, so that a simple comparison of electric vehicle (xEV) tax advantages is not straightforward. In this contribution, various European vehicle taxation systems are examined and a methodology is introduced which allows a comprehensible comparison and overview by calculating CO2 based taxation step curves. This methodology provides a powerful tool for benchmarking xEV technologies and analyzing consumer acceptance of xEVs and enables furthermore the discussion about possible future taxation and incentive schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vehicle Level Control Analysis for Voltec Powertrain
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020029
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
The next generation of the Volt vehicle with the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system was introduced into the market in 2016. The second-generation Volt’s powertrain architecture provides five modes of operation, including two electric vehicle operations and three extended-range operations. Vehicle testing was
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The next generation of the Volt vehicle with the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system was introduced into the market in 2016. The second-generation Volt’s powertrain architecture provides five modes of operation, including two electric vehicle operations and three extended-range operations. Vehicle testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer set within a thermal chamber at the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The study first focused on assessing the improvement of the new Voltec system by comparing the system efficiency with the previous system. Second, control behavior and performance were analyzed under normal ambient temperature to understand the supervisory control strategy on the Voltec system based on the test data. The analysis focused on the engine on/off strategy, powertrain operation mode, energy management, and engine operating conditions. Third, test data from the control analysis were used to summarize the vehicle control logic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Li-Ion Battery Lifetime Model’s Influence on the Economic Assessment of a Hybrid Electric Bus’s Operation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020028
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
The present paper is focused on the evaluation of the economic influence of a battery lifetime model upon the optimal sizing and energy management strategy of a dual energy storage system (ESS) composed of Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The operation of a Hybrid
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The present paper is focused on the evaluation of the economic influence of a battery lifetime model upon the optimal sizing and energy management strategy of a dual energy storage system (ESS) composed of Lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The operation of a Hybrid Bus is taken as a case study in order to evaluate the effects of battery lifetime models’ accuracy on ESS sizing and operation in a heavy-duty application. For this purpose, two different lifetime models (a Wöhler-curve-based model and a semi-empirical model) were applied in the multi-objective optimisation of a hybrid electric urban bus. Differences up to ca. 8% on the daily operation costs and ca. 25% on the dual ESS costs were estimated depending on the lifetime model considered for the optimisation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle White Spots in Business and IT: An Explorative Study for E-Mobility Services
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020027
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
E-mobility services are important enablers for the success of electric vehicles. In contrast to conventional mobility, where an ecosystem consisting of the vehicle and complementary services has been built up and has improved over decades, the ecosystem for e-mobility is far less advanced
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E-mobility services are important enablers for the success of electric vehicles. In contrast to conventional mobility, where an ecosystem consisting of the vehicle and complementary services has been built up and has improved over decades, the ecosystem for e-mobility is far less advanced and still in its infancy. In order to get on the sustainable path to success in the steadily growing e-mobility market, innovative ideas are necessary which are not covered by existing service offerings. This paper therefore describes a study that explored opportunities for innovative e-mobility service business models through a systematic analysis. Furthermore, each e-mobility service depends on information technology (IT) support. Therefore, IT standardization is an important issue to consider in order to build up more complex services on top of basic services and further advance the e-mobility ecosystem. Consequently, this paper presents results from a survey conducted with 27 e-mobility experts from Germany to help identify necessary standardization gaps in the context of e-mobility services. The paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge by proposing a structured, repeatable method for identifying innovative business models and by offering insights into study results. In addition, gaps in the standardization of IT infrastructure that are important for the provision of existing e-mobility services are illustrated. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note Mode 2 Charging—Testing and Certification for International Market Access
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020026
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
This paper provides an analysis of the current IEC 62752 standard. Establishing measures to protect against electric shock is one of the major tasks in the development of safe electric appliances. For electric vehicles this is very important too, because they are movable
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This paper provides an analysis of the current IEC 62752 standard. Establishing measures to protect against electric shock is one of the major tasks in the development of safe electric appliances. For electric vehicles this is very important too, because they are movable and in a public area most of the time. Even during recharge of the batteries, it is very likely that the electric vehicle is accessible to playing children or other people. IEC 62752 is a standard for a product which connects the electric vehicle with a standard household socket. This connection is required to provide electricity to the on-board charger of the electric vehicle and is called Mode 2 charging. In this article, the complexity of worldwide standardization for eMobility products is shown. Because the development of these products is still going on, some special requirements of IEC 62752 are explained, and some unique tests are described to help development engineers to design a safe, reliable, and durable product. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Performance of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Development of an Assessment Platform Based on Charging Data
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020025
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Developers of charging infrastructure, be it public or private parties, are highly dependent on accurate utilization data in order to make informed decisions where and when to expand charging points. The Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, in close cooperation with the municipalities of
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Developers of charging infrastructure, be it public or private parties, are highly dependent on accurate utilization data in order to make informed decisions where and when to expand charging points. The Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, in close cooperation with the municipalities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht, and the Metropolitan Region of Amsterdam Electric, developed both the back- and front-end of a charging infrastructure assessment platform that processes and represents real-life charging data. Charging infrastructure planning and design methods described in the literature use geographic information system data, traffic flow data of non-EV vehicles, or geographical distributions of, for example, refueling stations for combustion engine vehicles. Only limited methods apply real-life charging data. Rolling out public charging infrastructure is a balancing act between stimulating the transition to zero-emission transport by enabling (candidate) EV drivers to charge, and limiting costly investments in public charging infrastructure. Five key performance indicators for charging infrastructure utilization are derived from literature, workshops, and discussions with practitioners. The paper describes the Data Warehouse architecture designed for processing large amounts of charging data, and the web-based assessment platform by which practitioners get access to relevant knowledge and information about the current performance of existing charging infrastructure represented by the key performance indicators developed. The platform allows stakeholders in the decision-making process of charging point installation to make informed decisions on where and how to expand the already existing charging infrastructure. The results are generalizable beyond the case study regions in the Netherlands and can serve the roll-out of charging infrastructure, both public and semi-public, all over the world. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability Assessment of Second Use Applications of Automotive Batteries: Ageing of Li-Ion Battery Cells in Automotive and Grid-Scale Applications
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020024
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
The Sustainability Assessment of Second Life Applications of Automotive Batteries (SASLAB) exploratory research project of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) aims at developing and applying a methodology to analyse the sustainability of deploying electrified vehicles (xEV) batteries in second use applications.
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The Sustainability Assessment of Second Life Applications of Automotive Batteries (SASLAB) exploratory research project of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) aims at developing and applying a methodology to analyse the sustainability of deploying electrified vehicles (xEV) batteries in second use applications. A mapping of industrial demonstration and publicly-funded research projects in the area is presented, followed by an experimental assessment of the capacity and impedance change of lithium-ion cells during calendar and cycle ageing. Fresh cells and cells aged in the laboratory, as well as under real-world driving conditions, have been characterised to understand their application-specific remaining lifetime, beyond the 70% to 80% end-of-first-use criterion. For this purpose, pre-aged cells were examined under duty-cycles that resemble those of second use grid-scale applications. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report Factors Influencing Energy Consumption and Cost-Competiveness of Plug-in Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020023
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
The widespread adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will depend on public appreciation of the potential savings in ownership costs that PEVs offer over conventional, internal combustion energy vehicles (ICEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including fuel savings. This study compares the energy
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The widespread adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will depend on public appreciation of the potential savings in ownership costs that PEVs offer over conventional, internal combustion energy vehicles (ICEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including fuel savings. This study compares the energy consumption and estimated ownership costs of various technologies for multiple drive cycles in the United States and the European Union; identifies and quantifies the impacts of the main parameters influencing the ownership costs of PEVs in comparison with other powertrains for different timeframes, vehicle classes, and technologies; and assesses under what combinations of parameters the cost of PEVs can be competitive with other powertrains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Joining Technologies for Automotive Battery Systems Manufacturing
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020022
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
An automotive battery pack for use in electric vehicles consists of a large number of individual battery cells that are structurally held and electrically connected. Making the required electrical and structural joints represents several challenges, including, joining of multiple and thin highly conductive/reflective
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An automotive battery pack for use in electric vehicles consists of a large number of individual battery cells that are structurally held and electrically connected. Making the required electrical and structural joints represents several challenges, including, joining of multiple and thin highly conductive/reflective materials of varying thicknesses, potential damage (thermal, mechanical, or vibrational) during joining, a high joint durability requirement, and so on. This paper reviews the applicability of major and emerging joining techniques to support the wide range of joining requirements that exist during battery pack manufacturing. It identifies the advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and concerns of the joining technologies. The maturity and application potential of current joining technologies are mapped with respect to manufacturing readiness levels (MRLs). Further, a Pugh matrix is used to evaluate suitable joining candidates for cylindrical, pouch, and prismatic cells by addressing the aforementioned challenges. Combining Pugh matrix scores, MRLs, and application domains, this paper identifies the potential direction of automotive battery pack joining. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Load Shifting Potentials of Plug-In Electric Vehicles—A Case Study for Germany
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020021
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 30 June 2018
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Abstract
Plug-in electric vehicles are the currently favoured option to decarbonize the passenger car sector. However, a decarbonisation is only possible with electricity from renewable energies and plug-in electric vehicles might cause peak loads if they started to charge at the same time. Both
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Plug-in electric vehicles are the currently favoured option to decarbonize the passenger car sector. However, a decarbonisation is only possible with electricity from renewable energies and plug-in electric vehicles might cause peak loads if they started to charge at the same time. Both of these issues could be solved with coordinated load shifting (demand response). Previous studies analysed this research question by focusing on private vehicles with domestic and work charging infrastructure. This study additionally includes the important early adopter group of commercial fleet vehicles and reflects the impact of domestic, commercial, work, and public charging. For this purpose, two models are combined that capture the market diffusion of electric vehicles and their charging behaviour (ALADIN), as well as the load shifting potential of several new energy technologies (eLOAD). In a comparison of three different scenarios, we find that the charging of commercial vehicles does not inflict evening load peaks in the same magnitude as purely domestic charging of private cars does. Also, for private cars, charging at work occurs during the day and may reduce the necessity of load shifting while public charging plays a less important role in total charging demand as well as load shifting potential. Nonetheless, demand response reduces the system load by about 2.2 GW or 2.8% when domestic and work charging are considered when compared to a scenario with only domestic charging where a new peak might be created in the winter hours due to load shifting into the night. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhomogeneities in Battery Packs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020020
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
The market of accumulator based technologies is changing very fast, especially the electro mobility market due to different decisions made to reduce the impact on climate change. In most markets battery packs are used, which means accumulators are connected to form a battery
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The market of accumulator based technologies is changing very fast, especially the electro mobility market due to different decisions made to reduce the impact on climate change. In most markets battery packs are used, which means accumulators are connected to form a battery system consisting of, from a few accumulators up to thousands. Research of battery technologies often focuses on single cells, however considering the applications it is important to know the behaviour of different cells in a system. This paper deals with the inhomogeneities which influence the electrical behaviour of the system in simulation and measurement with a special focus on parallel connected cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dimensioning and Optimization of Hybrid Li-Ion Battery Systems for EVs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020019
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
Commercial electric vehicles nowadays are powered by a battery system containing one kind of lithium-ion battery cell. Due to the fixed ratio of the cells’ maximum power to nominal energy, the possibilities for designing power and energy of the battery pack independently are
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Commercial electric vehicles nowadays are powered by a battery system containing one kind of lithium-ion battery cell. Due to the fixed ratio of the cells’ maximum power to nominal energy, the possibilities for designing power and energy of the battery pack independently are limited. The battery system’s energy and maximum power can only be scaled by adapting the number of cells and modules, and the parameters furthermore depend on the characteristics of the cells used. Additional power electronics in the form of one or more dc/dc converters can be used to form a hybrid battery system comprised of more than one pack and different cell technologies. This allows for individually designing each battery pack and thus optimizing the overall battery system specification. This work presents a battery dimensioning and optimization approach for single pack and hybrid battery systems. It is based on an evolutionary optimization algorithm and a detailed, modular Matlab-Simulink vehicle model. Studies on the advantages of hybrid batteries for different vehicle classes were carried out. Results indicate that optimized hybrid battery systems can lead to weight and volume savings and further advantages in total cost of ownership, for example, by enhanced battery life time or reduced investment costs. On the other hand, they require more complex control logic, which is also discussed in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Method for the Quantification of Powertrain Electrification Impacts on Driving Dynamics
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020018
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper discusses a novel simulation-based study quantifying the impacts of driving dynamics in the electrification of conventional powertrains into hybrid powertrains. Towards this aim, the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST) is used to facilitate sensitivity analysis. Design of experiments and artificial neural
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This paper discusses a novel simulation-based study quantifying the impacts of driving dynamics in the electrification of conventional powertrains into hybrid powertrains. Towards this aim, the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST) is used to facilitate sensitivity analysis. Design of experiments and artificial neural network methods are employed to approximate the solution space to ensure a computationally efficient application of the FAST. To demonstrate this method, a simulation-based study was conducted to evaluate the electrification impacts in a challenging driving dynamic investigation scenario. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimating the Charging Profile of Individual Charge Sessions of Electric Vehicles in The Netherlands
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020017
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
The mass adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) might raise pressure on the power system, especially during peak hours. Therefore, there is a need for delayed charging. However, to optimize the charging system, the progression of charging from an empty battery to a full
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The mass adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) might raise pressure on the power system, especially during peak hours. Therefore, there is a need for delayed charging. However, to optimize the charging system, the progression of charging from an empty battery to a full battery of the EVs, based on real-world data, needs to be analyzed. Currently, many researchers view this charging profile as a static load and ignore the actual charging behavior during the charging session. However, this study investigates how different factors influence the charging profile of individual EVs based on real-world data of charging sessions in The Netherlands, and thereby enable optimization analysis of EV smart charging schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Online Multi Chemistry SoC Estimation Technique Using Data Driven Battery Model Parameter Estimation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9020016
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
Kalman filters have shown to be a very accurate and robust method for State of Charge estimation. However, their performance depends heavily on the accuracy of the used battery model and its parameters. These battery model parameters have shown to vary with the
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Kalman filters have shown to be a very accurate and robust method for State of Charge estimation. However, their performance depends heavily on the accuracy of the used battery model and its parameters. These battery model parameters have shown to vary with the State of Health, cell chemistry, temperature and load current. This paper studies a data driven battery model parameter estimation technique based on the recursive least squares method as an alternative to extensively characterizing every cell of interest with time-consuming test procedures. The performance of two commonly used electrical models is compared and extensively validated on three different cell chemistries (Nickel Cobalt Manganese, Lithium Iron Phosphate and Lithium Titanate Oxide), under load conditions of varying dynamic nature representative for electric vehicle (EV) applications, using a Dynamic Discharge Pulse Test (DDPT) and the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). The developed model is able to identify and update battery model parameters online, for three different chemistries, potentially reducing offline characterization efforts and allowing monitoring of battery electrical behavior and state estimation over its entire lifetime. Full article
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