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Future Internet, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2010), Pages 431-669

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Research

Open AccessArticle Exploiting the In-Network Capabilities of Multicast to Discover Proximate IPTV Channels
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 431-445; doi:10.3390/fi2040431
Received: 11 August 2010 / Revised: 24 September 2010 / Accepted: 25 September 2010 / Published: 29 September 2010
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Abstract
IPTV has become the next generation of television due, in part, to its ability to support features that have been lacking in conventional broadcasting—for example, end-user interactivity, personalisation and localisation. Providers are also searching for the most efficient delivery methods to provide the
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IPTV has become the next generation of television due, in part, to its ability to support features that have been lacking in conventional broadcasting—for example, end-user interactivity, personalisation and localisation. Providers are also searching for the most efficient delivery methods to provide the greatest amount of contents at the lowest cost. At present IPTV uses IP multicast to deliver live TV channels in an over-provisioned walled-garden network due to issues of deploying multicast and QoS challenges in the public Internet. However, IPTV is likely to shift into some parts of the public Internet in the future as a managed service. Multicast routing is performed on a per-session destination-address basis so each router maintains a table of all of the multicast addresses to which the content is being forwarded. We exploit this information to discover and join the in-progress channels of geographically proximate users and to create a new incentivised premium service in future IPTV networks called ProxyTV. This approach is expected to minimise network bandwidth requirements as it enables ISPs to optimise bandwidth on their edge networks. This becomes increasingly significant as TV content consumes more and more bandwidth, especially with the onset of HD and 3D capabilities. In this paper, we have presented in detail the concept with the results of a survey and an analysis of network traffic to justify the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Network vs. Application Based Solutions for NGN)
Open AccessArticle Deficit Round Robin with Fragmentation Scheduling to Achieve Generalized Weighted Fairness for Resource Allocation in IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX Networks
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 446-468; doi:10.3390/fi2040446
Received: 22 September 2010 / Revised: 2 October 2010 / Accepted: 12 October 2010 / Published: 12 October 2010
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Abstract
Deficit Round Robin (DRR) is a fair packet-based scheduling discipline commonly used in wired networks where link capacities do not change with time. However, in wireless networks, especially wireless broadband networks, i.e., IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX, there are two main considerations violate
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Deficit Round Robin (DRR) is a fair packet-based scheduling discipline commonly used in wired networks where link capacities do not change with time. However, in wireless networks, especially wireless broadband networks, i.e., IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX, there are two main considerations violate the packet-based service concept for DRR. First, the resources are allocated per Mobile WiMAX frame. To achieve full frame utilization, Mobile WiMAX allows packets to be fragmented. Second, due to a high variation in wireless channel conditions, the link/channel capacity can change over time and location. Therefore, we introduce a Deficit Round Robin with Fragmentation (DRRF) to allocate resources per Mobile WiMAX frame in a fair manner by allowing for varying link capacity and for transmitting fragmented packets. Similar to DRR and Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS), DRRF achieves perfect fairness. DRRF results in a higher throughput than DRR (80% improvement) while causing less overhead than GPS (8 times less than GPS). In addition, in Mobile WiMAX, the quality of service (QoS) offered by service providers is associated with the price paid. This is similar to a cellular phone system; the users may be required to pay air-time charges. Hence, we have also formalized a Generalized Weighted Fairness (GWF) criterion which equalizes a weighted sum of service time units or slots, called temporal fairness, and transmitted bytes, called throughput fairness, for customers who are located in a poor channel condition or at a further distance versus for those who are near the base stations, or have a good channel condition. We use DRRF to demonstrate the application of GWF. These fairness criteria are used to satisfy basic requirements for resource allocation, especially for non real-time traffic. Therefore, we also extend DRRF to support other QoS requirements, such as minimum reserved traffic rate, maximum sustained traffic rate, and traffic priority. For real-time traffic, i.e., video traffic, we compare the performance of DRRF with deadline enforcement to that of Earliest Deadline First (EDF). The results show that DRRF outperforms EDF (higher achievable throughput under the promised delay latency) and maintains fairness under an overload scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wired and Wireless IP Networks)
Open AccessArticle Node Coloring and Color Conflict Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 469-504; doi:10.3390/fi2040469
Received: 20 September 2010 / Revised: 1 October 2010 / Accepted: 8 October 2010 / Published: 13 October 2010
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Abstract
In wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency is mainly achieved by making nodes sleep. In this paper, we present the combination of SERENA, a new node activity scheduling algorithm based on node coloring, with TDMA/CA, a collision avoidance MAC protocol. We show that the 
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In wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency is mainly achieved by making nodes sleep. In this paper, we present the combination of SERENA, a new node activity scheduling algorithm based on node coloring, with TDMA/CA, a collision avoidance MAC protocol. We show that the  combination of these two protocols enables substantial bandwidth and energy benefits for both general and data gathering applications. As a first contribution, we prove that the three-hop node coloring problem is NP-complete. As a second contribution, the overhead induced by SERENA during network coloring is reduced, making possible the use of these protocols even in dense networks with limited bandwidth. The third contribution of this paper is to show that applying any slot assignment algorithmwith spatial reuse based on node neighborhood without taking into account link quality can lead to poor performances because of collisions. The use of good quality links will prevent this phenomenon. The fourth contribution consists of optimizing end-to-end delays for data gathering applications, by means of cross-layering with the application. However, color conflicts resulting from topology changes, mobility and late node arrivals can give rise to collisions. As a fifth contribution, we show how the MAC layer can detect color conflicts, and cope with them at the cost of a slightly reduced throughput. Then, we discuss the tradeoffbetween requesting SERENA to solve the color conflicts and dealing with them at the MAC layer, our third contribution. The combination of SERENA and TDMA/CA is evaluated through simulations on realistic topologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Networked Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle A Survey on Security in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Architectures—Overlay-Based vs. Underlay-Based Approaches
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 505-532; doi:10.3390/fi2040505
Received: 10 September 2010 / Revised: 1 October 2010 / Accepted: 8 October 2010 / Published: 13 October 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks share central characteristics such as their distributed and decentralized nature. Combining both networking paradigms results in a Mobile Peer-to-Peer (MP2P) system that operates independently from a preexisting infrastructure. Securing MP2P networks in terms of
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Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANET) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks share central characteristics such as their distributed and decentralized nature. Combining both networking paradigms results in a Mobile Peer-to-Peer (MP2P) system that operates independently from a preexisting infrastructure. Securing MP2P networks in terms of availability and robustness as basic demands in envisioned application scenarios like first responder operations is a challenging task. In this article, we present a survey of selected threats and of state of the art countermeasures for MANETs and P2P networks. Further, we discuss the efficiency of MANET and P2P security mechanisms when applied in MP2P networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Network vs. Application Based Solutions for NGN)
Open AccessArticle Ontology-Based Information Behaviour to Improve Web Search
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 533-558; doi:10.3390/fi2040533
Received: 24 September 2010 / Revised: 11 October 2010 / Accepted: 13 October 2010 / Published: 18 October 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Web Search Engines provide a huge number of answers in response to a user query, many of which are not relevant, whereas some of the most relevant ones may not be found. In the literature several approaches have been proposed in order to
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Web Search Engines provide a huge number of answers in response to a user query, many of which are not relevant, whereas some of the most relevant ones may not be found. In the literature several approaches have been proposed in order to help a user to find the information relevant to his/her real needs on the Web. To achieve this goal the individual Information Behavior can been analyzed to ’keep’ track of the user’s interests. Keeping information is a type of Information Behavior, and in several works researchers have referred to it as the study on what people do during a search on the Web. Generally, the user’s actions (e.g., how the user moves from one Web page to another, or her/his download of a document, etc.) are recorded in Web logs. This paper reports on research activities which aim to exploit the information extracted from Web logs (or query logs) in personalized user ontologies, with the objective to support the user in the process of discovering Web information relevant to her/his information needs. Personalized ontologies are used to improve the quality of Web search by applying two main techniques: query reformulation and re-ranking of query evaluation results. In this paper we analyze various methodologies presented in the literature aimed at using personalized ontologies, defined on the basis of the observation of Information Behaviour to help the user in finding relevant information. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Intrinsic TE Approach for End-to-End QoS Provisioning in OBS Networks Using Static Load-Balanced Routing Strategies
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 559-586; doi:10.3390/fi2040559
Received: 9 October 2010 / Revised: 21 October 2010 / Accepted: 21 October 2010 / Published: 22 October 2010
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Abstract
Optical burst switching provides a feasible paradigm for the next IP over optical backbones. However its burst loss performance can be highly affected by burst contention. In this paper we discuss traffic engineering approaches for path selection with the objective tominimize contention using
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Optical burst switching provides a feasible paradigm for the next IP over optical backbones. However its burst loss performance can be highly affected by burst contention. In this paper we discuss traffic engineering approaches for path selection with the objective tominimize contention using only topological information. The discussed strategies are based on balancing the traffic across the network in order to reduce congestion without incurring into link state protocol penalties. The routing strategies are evaluated by simulation on an optical burst switching model specifically developed for the purpose with OMNeT++. Results show that our strategies outperform the traditionally used shortest path routing to an extent that depends on the network connectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wired and Wireless IP Networks)
Open AccessArticle Look-Ahead Strategies Based on Store-Carry and Forward Relaying for Energy Efficient Cellular Communications
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 587-602; doi:10.3390/fi2040587
Received: 15 September 2010 / Revised: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 2 November 2010 / Published: 4 November 2010
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Abstract
With the increasing availability of Internet type services on mobile devices and the attractive flat rate all-you-can-eat billing system, cellular telecommunication networks are experiencing a tremendous growth in data usage demand. However, there are increasing concerns that current network deployment trends (including more
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With the increasing availability of Internet type services on mobile devices and the attractive flat rate all-you-can-eat billing system, cellular telecommunication networks are experiencing a tremendous growth in data usage demand. However, there are increasing concerns that current network deployment trends (including more efficient radio access techniques and increased spectrum allocation strategies), will be unable to support the increased Internet traffic in a sustainable way. The delay tolerant nature of mobile Internet traffic allows for a large degree of flexibility in optimizing network performance to meet different design objectives and it’s a feature that has mostly gone unexplored by the research community. In this paper, we introduce a novel message forwarding mechanism in cellular networks that benefits from the inherent delay tolerance of Internet type services to provide flexible and adjustable forwarding strategies for efficient network operation while guaranteeing timely deliveries. By capitalizing on the elasticity of message delivery deadlines and the actual mobility of nodes inside the cell, considerable performance gains can be achieved by physically propagating information messages within the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Network vs. Application Based Solutions for NGN)
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Open AccessArticle Network Edge Intelligence for the Emerging Next-Generation Internet
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 603-623; doi:10.3390/fi2040603
Received: 9 October 2010 / Revised: 2 November 2010 / Accepted: 3 November 2010 / Published: 5 November 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The success of the Content Delivery Networks (CDN) in the recent years has demonstrated the increased benefits of the deployment of some form of “intelligence” within the network. Cloud computing, on the other hand, has shown the benefits of economies of scale and
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The success of the Content Delivery Networks (CDN) in the recent years has demonstrated the increased benefits of the deployment of some form of “intelligence” within the network. Cloud computing, on the other hand, has shown the benefits of economies of scale and the use of a generic infrastructure to support a variety of services. Following that trend, we propose to move away from the smart terminal-dumb network dichotomy to a model where some degree of intelligence is put back into the network, specifically at the edge, with the support of Cloud technology. In this paper, we propose the deployment of an Edge Cloud, which integrates a variety of user-side and server-side services. On the user side, surrogate, an application running on top of the Cloud, supports a virtual client. The surrogate hides the underlying network infrastructure from the user, thus allowing for simpler, more easily managed terminals. Network side services supporting delivery of and exploiting content are also deployed on this infrastructure, giving the Internet Service Providers (ISP) many opportunities to become directly involved in content and service delivery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bringing Modeling to the Masses: A Web Based System to Predict Potential Species Distributions
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 624-634; doi:10.3390/fi2040624
Received: 11 October 2010 / Revised: 2 November 2010 / Accepted: 3 November 2010 / Published: 11 November 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Predicting current and potential species distributions and abundance is critical for managing invasive species, preserving threatened and endangered species, and conserving native species and habitats. Accurate predictive models are needed at local, regional, and national scales to guide field surveys, improve monitoring, and
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Predicting current and potential species distributions and abundance is critical for managing invasive species, preserving threatened and endangered species, and conserving native species and habitats. Accurate predictive models are needed at local, regional, and national scales to guide field surveys, improve monitoring, and set priorities for conservation and restoration. Modeling capabilities, however, are often limited by access to software and environmental data required for predictions. To address these needs, we built a comprehensive web-based system that: (1) maintains a large database of field data; (2) provides access to field data and a wealth of environmental data; (3) accesses values in rasters representing environmental characteristics; (4) runs statistical spatial models; and (5) creates maps that predict the potential species distribution. The system is available online at www.niiss.org, and provides web-based tools for stakeholders to create potential species distribution models and maps under current and future climate scenarios. Full article
Open AccessArticle CWM Global Search—The Internet Search Engine for Chemists and Biologists
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 635-644; doi:10.3390/fi2040635
Received: 11 October 2010 / Revised: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 30 November 2010 / Published: 3 December 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CWM Global Search is a meta-search engine allowing chemists and biologists to search the major chemical and biological databases on the Internet, by structure, synonyms, CAS Registry Numbers and free text. A meta-search engine is a search tool that sends user requests to
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CWM Global Search is a meta-search engine allowing chemists and biologists to search the major chemical and biological databases on the Internet, by structure, synonyms, CAS Registry Numbers and free text. A meta-search engine is a search tool that sends user requests to several other search engines and/or databases and aggregates the results into a single list or displays them according to their source [1]. CWM Global Search is a web application that has many of the characteristics of desktop applications (also known as Rich Internet Application, RIA), and it runs on both Windows and Macintosh platforms. The application is one of the first RIA for scientists. The application can be started using the URL http://cwmglobalsearch.com/gsweb. Full article
Open AccessArticle Simplifying the Scientific Writing and Review Process with SciFlow
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 645-661; doi:10.3390/fi2040645
Received: 13 September 2010 / Revised: 30 November 2010 / Accepted: 2 December 2010 / Published: 6 December 2010
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Abstract
Scientific writing is an essential part of a student’s and researcher’s everyday life. In this paper we investigate the particularities of scientific writing and explore the features and limitations of existing tools for scientific writing. Deriving from this analysis and an online survey
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Scientific writing is an essential part of a student’s and researcher’s everyday life. In this paper we investigate the particularities of scientific writing and explore the features and limitations of existing tools for scientific writing. Deriving from this analysis and an online survey of the scientific writing processes of students and researchers at the University of Paderborn, we identify key principles to simplify scientific writing and reviewing. Finally, we introduce a novel approach to support scientific writing with a tool called SciFlow that builds on these principles and state of the art technologies like cloud computing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improving Anomaly Detection for Text-Based Protocols by Exploiting Message Structures
Future Internet 2010, 2(4), 662-669; doi:10.3390/fi2040662
Received: 23 October 2010 / Revised: 16 December 2010 / Accepted: 17 December 2010 / Published: 21 December 2010
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Abstract
Service platforms using text-based protocols need to be protected against attacks. Machine-learning algorithms with pattern matching can be used to detect even previously unknown attacks. In this paper, we present an extension to known Support Vector Machine (SVM) based anomaly detection algorithms for
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Service platforms using text-based protocols need to be protected against attacks. Machine-learning algorithms with pattern matching can be used to detect even previously unknown attacks. In this paper, we present an extension to known Support Vector Machine (SVM) based anomaly detection algorithms for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Our contribution is to extend the amount of different features used for classification (feature space) by exploiting the structure of SIP messages, which reduces the false positive rate. Additionally, we show how combining our approach with attribute reduction significantly improves throughput. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semantics in the Future Internet)
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