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Pharmaceutics 2015, 7(2), 10-26; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics7020010

Effects of Mitragynine and a Crude Alkaloid Extract Derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. on Permethrin Elimination in Rats

1
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
2
Natural Product Research Center, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
4
Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Afzal Mohammed
Received: 16 November 2014 / Revised: 28 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
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Abstract

Detoxification and elimination of permethrin (PM) are mediated by hydrolysis via carboxylesterase (CES). Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) contains mitragynine (MG) and other bioactive alkaloids. Since PM and MG have the same catalytic site and M. speciosa is usually abused by adding other ingredients such as pyrethroid insecticides, the effects of MG and an alkaloid extract (AE) on the elimination of PM were investigated in rats. Rats were subjected to single and multiple pretreatment with MG and AE prior to receiving a single oral dose (460 mg/kg) of PM. Plasma concentrations of trans-PM and its metabolite phenoxybenzylalcohol (PBAlc) were measured. The elimination rate constant (kel) and the elimination half-life (t1/2 el) of PM were determined, as well as the metabolic ratio (PMR). A single and multiple oral pretreatment with MG and AE altered the plasma concentration-time courses of both trans-PM and PBAlc during 8–22 h, decreased the PMRs, delayed elimination of PM, but enhanced elimination of PBAlc. Results indicated that PM–MG or AE toxicokinetic interactions might have resulted from the MG and AE interfering with PM hydrolysis. The results obtained in rats suggest that in humans using kratom cocktails containing PM, there might be an increased risk of PM toxicity due to inhibition of PM metabolism and elimination. View Full-Text
Keywords: kratom; pyrethroids; toxicokinetic interaction; metabolic ratio kratom; pyrethroids; toxicokinetic interaction; metabolic ratio
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Srichana, K.; Janchawee, B.; Prutipanlai, S.; Raungrut, P.; Keawpradub, N. Effects of Mitragynine and a Crude Alkaloid Extract Derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. on Permethrin Elimination in Rats. Pharmaceutics 2015, 7, 10-26.

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