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Pharmaceutics 2012, 4(3), 377-384; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics4030377
Article

The Effect of Diluted Penetration Enhancer in Nebulized Mist versus Liquid Drop Preparation Forms on Retrobulbar Blood Flow in Healthy Human Subjects

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Received: 10 April 2012; in revised form: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 1 August 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
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Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nebulized mist and liquid drop applications on retrobulbar blood flow. A prospective, non-randomized clinical trial was used to collect data from 40 healthy human eyes. Color Doppler Imaging determined peak systolic (PSV) and end diastolic (EDV) blood flow velocities and resistance index (RI) in the ophthalmic artery after both applications. Measurements were taken at baseline and at 1 min post-treatment in both eyes with 5 min measurements in the treatment eye only. p values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mist application to treatment eye produced an increase in 1 min and 5 min PSV and EDV (0.001 < p < 0.03) and a decrease in 5 min RI (p = 0.01), with no significant changes in PSV, EDV or RI of control eye or in treatment eye 1 min RI (p > 0.05). Drop application to treatment eye produced an increase in PSV (p < 0.001) and EDV (p = 0.01) at 1 min, with an increase in control eye 1 min PSV and EDV (p = 0.03). There were no statistically significant changes in treatment eye PSV, EDV and RI after 5 min (p > 0.05). The use of nebulized mist may provide an effective alternative to liquid drop medication application.
Keywords: retrobulbar blood flow; color Doppler imaging; nebulized mist retrobulbar blood flow; color Doppler imaging; nebulized mist
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Primus, S.; Januleviciene, I.; Siesky, B.; Gerber, A.; Egan, P.; Amireskandari, A.; Siaudvytyte, L.; Barsauskaite, R.; Harris, A. The Effect of Diluted Penetration Enhancer in Nebulized Mist versus Liquid Drop Preparation Forms on Retrobulbar Blood Flow in Healthy Human Subjects. Pharmaceutics 2012, 4, 377-384.

AMA Style

Primus S, Januleviciene I, Siesky B, Gerber A, Egan P, Amireskandari A, Siaudvytyte L, Barsauskaite R, Harris A. The Effect of Diluted Penetration Enhancer in Nebulized Mist versus Liquid Drop Preparation Forms on Retrobulbar Blood Flow in Healthy Human Subjects. Pharmaceutics. 2012; 4(3):377-384.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Primus, Sally; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Siesky, Brent; Gerber, Austin; Egan, Patrick; Amireskandari, Annahita; Siaudvytyte, Lina; Barsauskaite, Ruta; Harris, Alon. 2012. "The Effect of Diluted Penetration Enhancer in Nebulized Mist versus Liquid Drop Preparation Forms on Retrobulbar Blood Flow in Healthy Human Subjects." Pharmaceutics 4, no. 3: 377-384.


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