Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Influence of the Vehicle on the Penetration of Particles into Hair Follicles
Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology (CCP), Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Surflay Nanotec GmbH, Schwarzschildstr. 8, 12489 Berlin, Germany
Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Tumorimmunology, 10117 Berlin, Germany
EMC microcollections GmbH, Sindelfinger Str. 3, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 April 2011; in revised form: 30 May 2011 / Accepted: 8 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
Abstract: Recently, it has been demonstrated that particulate substances penetrate preferentially into the hair follicles and that the penetration depth depends on the particle size. In the present study, the influence of the vehicle of the particulate substances on the penetration depth was investigated. Four different formulations (ethanolic suspension, aqueous suspension, ethanolic gel and aqueous gel) containing peptide-loaded particles of 1 µm in diameter were prepared and applied on porcine ear skin. After penetration, punch biopsies were taken and the penetration depths of the particles were investigated by laser scanning microscopy. The deepest penetration was achieved with the gel formulations demonstrating an influence of the vehicle on the penetration depth of particulate substances.
Keywords: hair follicle; penetration; particle; vehicle; formulation
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Patzelt, A.; Richter, H.; Dähne, L.; Walden, P.; Wiesmüller, K.-H.; Wank, U.; Sterry, W.; Lademann, J. Influence of the Vehicle on the Penetration of Particles into Hair Follicles. Pharmaceutics 2011, 3, 307-314.
Patzelt A, Richter H, Dähne L, Walden P, Wiesmüller K-H, Wank U, Sterry W, Lademann J. Influence of the Vehicle on the Penetration of Particles into Hair Follicles. Pharmaceutics. 2011; 3(2):307-314.
Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Dähne, Lars; Walden, Peter; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Wank, Ute; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen. 2011. "Influence of the Vehicle on the Penetration of Particles into Hair Follicles." Pharmaceutics 3, no. 2: 307-314.