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Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030116

Tailoring Formulations for Intranasal Nose-to-Brain Delivery: A Review on Architecture, Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Mucociliary Clearance of the Nasal Olfactory Mucosa

1
Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Applied Sciences Biberach, Hubertus-Liebrecht-Strasse 35, 88400 Biberach, Germany
2
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nose to Brain Delivery)
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Abstract

The blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier are major obstacles in central nervous system (CNS) drug delivery, since they block most molecules from entering the brain. Alternative drug delivery routes like intraparenchymal or intrathecal are invasive methods with a remaining risk of infections. In contrast, nose-to-brain delivery is a minimally invasive drug administration pathway, which bypasses the blood-brain barrier as the drug is directed from the nasal cavity to the brain. In particular, the skull base located at the roof of the nasal cavity is in close vicinity to the CNS. This area is covered with olfactory mucosa. To design and tailor suitable formulations for nose-to-brain drug delivery, the architecture, structure and physico-chemical characteristics of the mucosa are important criteria. Hence, here we review the state-of-the-art knowledge about the characteristics of the nasal and, in particular, the olfactory mucosa needed for a rational design of intranasal formulations and dosage forms. Also, the information is suitable for the development of systemic or local intranasal drug delivery as well as for intranasal vaccinations. View Full-Text
Keywords: olfactory epithelium; respiratory epithelium; NALT; semisolid; nanoparticles; CNS drug delivery; biopharmaceuticals; dosage form; medical device olfactory epithelium; respiratory epithelium; NALT; semisolid; nanoparticles; CNS drug delivery; biopharmaceuticals; dosage form; medical device
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Gänger, S.; Schindowski, K. Tailoring Formulations for Intranasal Nose-to-Brain Delivery: A Review on Architecture, Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Mucociliary Clearance of the Nasal Olfactory Mucosa. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 116.

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