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Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030100

A Simple and Sensitive Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Anthraquinone Glycosides and Their Aglycones in Rat Plasma: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study of Rumex acetosa Extract

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Metabolism, Pharmacokinetics and Bioanalysis)
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Abstract

Rumex acetosa (R. acetosa) has been used in folk remedies for gastrointestinal disorders and cutaneous diseases. Rumex species, in particular, contain abundant anthraquinones. Anthraquinone glycosides and aglycones show different bioactive effects. However, information on the pharmacokinetics of anthraquinone glycosides is limited, and methods to quantify anthraquinone glycosides in plasma are rarely available. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric bioanalytical method for the simultaneous determination of both anthraquinone glycosides and their aglycones, including emodin, emodin-8-O-β-d-glucoside, chrysophanol, chrysophanol-8-O-β-d-glucoside, physcion, and physcion-8-O-β-d-glucoside , in a low volume of rat plasma (20 µL) was established. A simple and rapid sample preparation was employed using methanol as a precipitating agent with appropriate sensitivity. Chromatographic separation was performed on HPLC by using a biphenyl column with a gradient elution using 2 mM ammonium formate (pH 6) in water and 2 mM ammonium formate (pH 6) in methanol within a run time of 13 min. The anthraquinones were detected on triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode using multiple-reaction monitoring. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability. The values of the lower limit of quantitation of anthraquinones were 1–20 ng/mL. The intra-batch and inter-batch accuracies were 96.7–111.9% and the precision was within the acceptable limits. The method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of R. acetosa 70% ethanol extract to rats at a dose of 2 g/kg. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthraquinone; glycoside; aglycone; LC-MS/MS; plasma; protein precipitation anthraquinone; glycoside; aglycone; LC-MS/MS; plasma; protein precipitation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ullah, H.M.A.; Kim, J.; Rehman, N.U.; Kim, H.-J.; Ahn, M.-J.; Chung, H.J. A Simple and Sensitive Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Anthraquinone Glycosides and Their Aglycones in Rat Plasma: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study of Rumex acetosa Extract. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 100.

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