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Viruses 2017, 9(9), 249; doi:10.3390/v9090249

Die Another Day: Inhibition of Cell Death Pathways by Cytomegalovirus

1
Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, Hamburg 20251, Germany
2
Immunology and Virology Program, Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, the University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA, Australia
3
Centre for Experimental Immunology, Lions Eye Institute, Nedlands 6009, WA, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc Kvansakul
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Infection and Apoptosis)
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Abstract

Multicellular organisms have evolved multiple genetically programmed cell death pathways that are essential for homeostasis. The finding that many viruses encode cell death inhibitors suggested that cellular suicide also functions as a first line of defence against invading pathogens. This theory was confirmed by studying viral mutants that lack certain cell death inhibitors. Cytomegaloviruses, a family of species-specific viruses, have proved particularly useful in this respect. Cytomegaloviruses are known to encode multiple death inhibitors that are required for efficient viral replication. Here, we outline the mechanisms used by the host cell to detect cytomegalovirus infection and discuss the methods employed by the cytomegalovirus family to prevent death of the host cell. In addition to enhancing our understanding of cytomegalovirus pathogenesis we detail how this research has provided significant insights into the cross-talk that exists between the various cell death pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; necrosis; necroptosis; HCMV; MCMV; vMIA; vICA; vIRA; vIBO apoptosis; necrosis; necroptosis; HCMV; MCMV; vMIA; vICA; vIRA; vIBO
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Brune, W.; Andoniou, C.E. Die Another Day: Inhibition of Cell Death Pathways by Cytomegalovirus. Viruses 2017, 9, 249.

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