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Viruses 2017, 9(9), 245; doi:10.3390/v9090245

Keratinocyte Differentiation-Dependent Human Papillomavirus Gene Regulation

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Garscube Estate, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
Academic Editors: Alison A. McBride and Karl Munger
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expert Views on HPV Infection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1387 KB, uploaded 30 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause diseases ranging from benign warts to invasive cancers. HPVs infect epithelial cells and their replication cycle is tightly linked with the differentiation process of the infected keratinocyte. The normal replication cycle involves an early and a late phase. The early phase encompasses viral entry and initial genome replication, stimulation of cell division and inhibition of apoptosis in the infected cell. Late events in the HPV life cycle include viral genome amplification, virion formation, and release into the environment from the surface of the epithelium. The main proteins required at the late stage of infection for viral genome amplification include E1, E2, E4 and E5. The late proteins L1 and L2 are structural proteins that form the viral capsid. Regulation of these late events involves both cellular and viral proteins. The late viral mRNAs are expressed from a specific late promoter but final late mRNA levels in the infected cell are controlled by splicing, polyadenylation, nuclear export and RNA stability. Viral late protein expression is also controlled at the level of translation. This review will discuss current knowledge of how HPV late gene expression is regulated. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus; infection; epithelial differentiation; gene regulation; RNA processing human papillomavirus; infection; epithelial differentiation; gene regulation; RNA processing
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Graham, S.V. Keratinocyte Differentiation-Dependent Human Papillomavirus Gene Regulation. Viruses 2017, 9, 245.

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