Keratinocyte Differentiation-Dependent Human Papillomavirus Gene Regulation
AbstractHuman papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause diseases ranging from benign warts to invasive cancers. HPVs infect epithelial cells and their replication cycle is tightly linked with the differentiation process of the infected keratinocyte. The normal replication cycle involves an early and a late phase. The early phase encompasses viral entry and initial genome replication, stimulation of cell division and inhibition of apoptosis in the infected cell. Late events in the HPV life cycle include viral genome amplification, virion formation, and release into the environment from the surface of the epithelium. The main proteins required at the late stage of infection for viral genome amplification include E1, E2, E4 and E5. The late proteins L1 and L2 are structural proteins that form the viral capsid. Regulation of these late events involves both cellular and viral proteins. The late viral mRNAs are expressed from a specific late promoter but final late mRNA levels in the infected cell are controlled by splicing, polyadenylation, nuclear export and RNA stability. Viral late protein expression is also controlled at the level of translation. This review will discuss current knowledge of how HPV late gene expression is regulated. View Full-Text
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Graham, S.V. Keratinocyte Differentiation-Dependent Human Papillomavirus Gene Regulation. Viruses 2017, 9, 245.
Graham SV. Keratinocyte Differentiation-Dependent Human Papillomavirus Gene Regulation. Viruses. 2017; 9(9):245.Chicago/Turabian Style
Graham, Sheila V. 2017. "Keratinocyte Differentiation-Dependent Human Papillomavirus Gene Regulation." Viruses 9, no. 9: 245.
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