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Viruses 2017, 9(9), 243; doi:10.3390/v9090243

Regulation of Apoptosis during Flavivirus Infection

Department of Molecular Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc Kvansakul
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Infection and Apoptosis)
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Abstract

Apoptosis is a type of programmed cell death that regulates cellular homeostasis by removing damaged or unnecessary cells. Its importance in host defenses is highlighted by the observation that many viruses evade, obstruct, or subvert apoptosis, thereby blunting the host immune response. Infection with Flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) has been shown to activate several signaling pathways such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress and AKT/PI3K pathway, resulting in activation or suppression of apoptosis in virus-infected cells. On the other hands, expression of some viral proteins induces or protects apoptosis. There is a discrepancy between induction and suppression of apoptosis during flavivirus infection because the experimental situation may be different, and strong links between apoptosis and other types of cell death such as necrosis may make it more difficult. In this paper, we review the effects of apoptosis on viral propagation and pathogenesis during infection with flaviviruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2); flavivirus; dengue virus; Japanese encephalitis virus; West Nile virus apoptosis; B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2); flavivirus; dengue virus; Japanese encephalitis virus; West Nile virus
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Okamoto, T.; Suzuki, T.; Kusakabe, S.; Tokunaga, M.; Hirano, J.; Miyata, Y.; Matsuura, Y. Regulation of Apoptosis during Flavivirus Infection. Viruses 2017, 9, 243.

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