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Viruses 2017, 9(9), 236; doi:10.3390/v9090236

The Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in “Nonendemic” Regions of Zambia (1989–2015): Implications for Disease Prevention and Control

1
Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
2
Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
3
Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa
4
Division of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan
5
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
6
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 0454 Oslo, Norway
7
Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
8
Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jens H. Kuhn
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic disease of swine. In Zambia, ASF was first reported in 1912 in Eastern Province and is currently believed to be endemic in that province only. Strict quarantine measures implemented at the Luangwa River Bridge, the only surface outlet from Eastern Province, appeared to be successful in restricting the disease. However, in 1989, an outbreak occurred for the first time outside the endemic province. Sporadic outbreaks have since occurred almost throughout the country. These events have brought into acute focus our limited understanding of the epidemiology of ASF in Zambia. Here, we review the epidemiology of the disease in areas considered nonendemic from 1989 to 2015. Comprehensive sequence analysis conducted on genetic data of ASF viruses (ASFVs) detected in domestic pigs revealed that p72 genotypes I, II, VIII and XIV have been involved in causing ASF outbreaks in swine during the study period. With the exception of the 1989 outbreak, we found no concrete evidence of dissemination of ASFVs from Eastern Province to other parts of the country. Our analyses revealed a complex epidemiology of the disease with a possibility of sylvatic cycle involvement. Trade and/or movement of pigs and their products, both within and across international borders, appear to have been the major factor in ASFV dissemination. Since ASFVs with the potential to cause countrywide and possibly regional outbreaks, could emerge from “nonendemic regions”, the current ASF control policy in Zambia requires a dramatic shift to ensure a more sustainable pig industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asfarviridae; African swine fever; domestic pigs; phylogenetic analysis; molecular epidemiology; Zambia Asfarviridae; African swine fever; domestic pigs; phylogenetic analysis; molecular epidemiology; Zambia
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Simulundu, E.; Lubaba, C.H.; van Heerden, J.; Kajihara, M.; Mataa, L.; Chambaro, H.M.; Sinkala, Y.; Munjita, S.M.; Munang’andu, H.M.; Nalubamba, K.S.; Samui, K.; Pandey, G.S.; Takada, A.; Mweene, A.S. The Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in “Nonendemic” Regions of Zambia (1989–2015): Implications for Disease Prevention and Control. Viruses 2017, 9, 236.

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