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Viruses 2017, 9(8), 215; doi:10.3390/v9080215

Poxviruses Utilize Multiple Strategies to Inhibit Apoptosis

Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ 07039, USA
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Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Infection and Apoptosis)
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Abstract

Cells have multiple means to induce apoptosis in response to viral infection. Poxviruses must prevent activation of cellular apoptosis to ensure successful replication. These viruses devote a substantial portion of their genome to immune evasion. Many of these immune evasion products expressed during infection antagonize cellular apoptotic pathways. Poxvirus products target multiple points in both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, thereby mitigating apoptosis during infection. Interestingly, recent evidence indicates that poxviruses also hijack cellular means of eliminating apoptotic bodies as a means to spread cell to cell through a process called apoptotic mimicry. Poxviruses are the causative agent of many human and veterinary diseases. Further, there is substantial interest in developing these viruses as vectors for a variety of uses including vaccine delivery and as oncolytic viruses to treat certain human cancers. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which poxviruses regulate the cellular apoptotic pathways remains a top research priority. In this review, we consider anti-apoptotic strategies of poxviruses focusing on three relevant poxvirus genera: Orthopoxvirus, Molluscipoxvirus, and Leporipoxvirus. All three genera express multiple products to inhibit both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways with many of these products required for virulence. View Full-Text
Keywords: poxvirus; Vaccinia Virus; Molluscum Contagiosum Virus; Myxoma Virus; apoptosis; immune evasion; mitochondrial membrane permeabilization; protein kinase R; caspase; host defense poxvirus; Vaccinia Virus; Molluscum Contagiosum Virus; Myxoma Virus; apoptosis; immune evasion; mitochondrial membrane permeabilization; protein kinase R; caspase; host defense
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nichols, D.B.; De Martini, W.; Cottrell, J. Poxviruses Utilize Multiple Strategies to Inhibit Apoptosis. Viruses 2017, 9, 215.

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