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Viruses 2017, 9(7), 194; doi:10.3390/v9070194

Latency, Integration, and Reactivation of Human Herpesvirus-6

1
College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd, MDC Box 7, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
2
Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Life Sciences and Technology Park, 1951 NW 7th Avenue Ste. 270, Miami, FL 33136, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul M. Lieberman
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Telomeres)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [751 KB, uploaded 24 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) are two closely related viruses that infect T-cells. Both HHV-6A and HHV-6B possess telomere-like repeats at the terminal regions of their genomes that facilitate latency by integration into the host telomeres, rather than by episome formation. In about 1% of the human population, human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) integration into germline cells allows the viral genome to be passed down from one generation to the other; this condition is called inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6). This review will cover the history of HHV-6 and recent works that define the biological differences between HHV-6A and HHV-6B. Additionally, HHV-6 integration and inheritance, the capacity for reactivation and superinfection of iciHHV-6 individuals with a second strain of HHV-6, and the role of hypomethylation of human chromosomes during integration are discussed. Overall, the data suggest that integration of HHV-6 in telomeres represent a unique mechanism of viral latency and offers a novel tool to study not only HHV-6 pathogenesis, but also telomere biology. Paradoxically, the integrated viral genome is often defective especially as seen in iciHHV-6 harboring individuals. Finally, gaps in the field of HHV-6 research are presented and future studies are proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: HHV-6; integration; telomere; latency; inherited herpesvirus; human herpesvirus-6; immune tolerance; superinfection HHV-6; integration; telomere; latency; inherited herpesvirus; human herpesvirus-6; immune tolerance; superinfection
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Pantry, S.N.; Medveczky, P.G. Latency, Integration, and Reactivation of Human Herpesvirus-6. Viruses 2017, 9, 194.

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