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Viruses 2017, 9(7), 186; doi:10.3390/v9070186

Targeting Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRR) for Vaccine Adjuvantation: From Synthetic PRR Agonists to the Potential of Defective Interfering Particles of Viruses

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, 1 University Avenue, Aglatzia, Nicosia 2109, Cyprus
2
Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George’s, University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK
3
School of Biology, University of St Andrews, The North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Curt Hagedorn
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3020 KB, uploaded 18 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Modern vaccinology has increasingly focused on non-living vaccines, which are more stable than live-attenuated vaccines but often show limited immunogenicity. Immunostimulatory substances, known as adjuvants, are traditionally used to increase the magnitude of protective adaptive immunity in response to a pathogen-associated antigen. Recently developed adjuvants often include substances that stimulate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), essential components of innate immunity required for the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Nearly all PRRs are potential targets for adjuvants. Given the recent success of toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in vaccine development, molecules with similar, but additional, immunostimulatory activity, such as defective interfering particles (DIPs) of viruses, represent attractive candidates for vaccine adjuvants. This review outlines some of the recent advances in vaccine development related to the use of TLR agonists, summarizes the current knowledge regarding DIP immunogenicity, and discusses the potential applications of DIPs in vaccine adjuvantation. View Full-Text
Keywords: defective interfering particles; defective viral genomes; innate immunity; vaccine adjuvants; pattern recognition receptor agonists defective interfering particles; defective viral genomes; innate immunity; vaccine adjuvants; pattern recognition receptor agonists
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vasou, A.; Sultanoglu, N.; Goodbourn, S.; Randall, R.E.; Kostrikis, L.G. Targeting Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRR) for Vaccine Adjuvantation: From Synthetic PRR Agonists to the Potential of Defective Interfering Particles of Viruses. Viruses 2017, 9, 186.

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