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Viruses 2017, 9(7), 174; doi:10.3390/v9070174

Virus/Host Cell Crosstalk in Hypoxic HPV-Positive Cancer Cells

1
Molecular Therapy of Virus-Associated Cancers (F065), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2
Viral Transformation Mechanisms (F030), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alison A. McBride and Karl Munger
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expert Views on HPV Infection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [885 KB, uploaded 5 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major human carcinogens. The expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes plays a key role for HPV-linked oncogenesis. It recently has been found that low oxygen concentrations (“hypoxia”), as present in sub-regions of HPV-positive cancers, strongly affect the interplay between the HPV oncogenes and their transformed host cell. As a result, a state of dormancy is induced in hypoxic HPV-positive cancer cells, which is characterized by a shutdown of viral oncogene expression and a proliferative arrest that can be reversed by reoxygenation. In this review, these findings are put into the context of the current concepts of both HPV-linked carcinogenesis and of the effects of hypoxia on tumor biology. Moreover, we discuss the consequences for the phenotype of HPV-positive cancer cells as well as for their clinical behavior and response towards established and prospective therapeutic strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus; hypoxia; cervical cancer; head and neck cancer; senescence; metabolism; mTOR; therapy human papillomavirus; hypoxia; cervical cancer; head and neck cancer; senescence; metabolism; mTOR; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoppe-Seyler, K.; Mändl, J.; Adrian, S.; Kuhn, B.J.; Hoppe-Seyler, F. Virus/Host Cell Crosstalk in Hypoxic HPV-Positive Cancer Cells. Viruses 2017, 9, 174.

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