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Viruses 2017, 9(5), 111; doi:10.3390/v9050111

Human Beta Defensin 2 Selectively Inhibits HIV-1 in Highly Permissive CCR6+CD4+ T Cells

1
Division of Basic Science, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
3
Department of Biochemistry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
4
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Padova 35121, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Theresa Chang
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Defensins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3349 KB, uploaded 16 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)+CD4+ T cells are preferentially infected and depleted during HIV disease progression, but are preserved in non-progressors. CCR6 is expressed on a heterogeneous population of memory CD4+ T cells that are critical to mucosal immunity. Preferential infection of these cells is associated, in part, with high surface expression of CCR5, CXCR4, and α4β7. In addition, CCR6+CD4+ T cells harbor elevated levels of integrated viral DNA and high levels of proliferation markers. We have previously shown that the CCR6 ligands MIP-3α and human beta defensins inhibit HIV replication. The inhibition required CCR6 and the induction of APOBEC3G. Here, we further characterize the induction of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme (APOBEC3G) by human beta defensin 2. Human beta defensin 2 rapidly induces transcriptional induction of APOBEC3G that involves extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation and the transcription factors NFATc2, NFATc1, and IRF4. We demonstrate that human beta defensin 2 selectively protects primary CCR6+CD4+ T cells infected with HIV-1. The selective protection of CCR6+CD4+ T cell subsets may be critical in maintaining mucosal immune function and preventing disease progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: defensins; viruses; immune response; HIV; CCR6; pathogenesis; human beta defensin 2; Th17 defensins; viruses; immune response; HIV; CCR6; pathogenesis; human beta defensin 2; Th17
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lafferty, M.K.; Sun, L.; Christensen-Quick, A.; Lu, W.; Garzino-Demo, A. Human Beta Defensin 2 Selectively Inhibits HIV-1 in Highly Permissive CCR6+CD4+ T Cells. Viruses 2017, 9, 111.

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