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Viruses 2017, 9(11), 354; doi:10.3390/v9110354

Human Protoparvoviruses

Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00290, Finland
Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki 00290, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protoparvoviruses: Friends or Foes?)
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Next-generation sequencing and metagenomics have revolutionized the discovery of novel viruses. In recent years, three novel protoparvoviruses have been discovered in fecal samples of humans: bufavirus (BuV) in 2012, tusavirus (TuV) in 2014, and cutavirus (CuV) in 2016. BuV has since been studied the most, disclosing three genotypes that also represent serotypes. Besides one nasal sample, BuV DNA has been found exclusively in diarrheal feces, but not in non-diarrheal feces, suggesting a causal relationship. According to both geno- and seroprevalences, BuV appears to be the most common of the three novel protoparvoviruses, whereas TuV DNA has been found in only a single fecal sample, with antibody detection being equally rare. Moreover, the TuV sequence is closer to those of non-human protoparvoviruses, and so the evidence of TuV being a human virus is thus far insufficient. Interestingly, besides in feces, CuV has also been detected in skin biopsies of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and a patient with melanoma, while all other skin samples have tested PCR negative. Even if preliminary disease associations exist, the full etiological roles of these viruses in human disease are yet to be resolved. View Full-Text
Keywords: human protoparvovirus; bufavirus; tusavirus; cutavirus; discovery; epidemiology; gastroenteritis; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; emerging viruses human protoparvovirus; bufavirus; tusavirus; cutavirus; discovery; epidemiology; gastroenteritis; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; emerging viruses

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Väisänen, E.; Fu, Y.; Hedman, K.; Söderlund-Venermo, M. Human Protoparvoviruses. Viruses 2017, 9, 354.

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