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Correction published on 2 January 2018, see Viruses 2018, 10(1), 17.

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2017, 9(11), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/v9110348

Diversity of dsDNA Viruses in a South African Hot Spring Assessed by Metagenomics and Microscopy

Institute for Microbial Biotechnology and Metagenomics, Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, 7535 Bellville, South Africa
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Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Viruses)
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Abstract

The current view of virus diversity in terrestrial hot springs is limited to a few sampling sites. To expand our current understanding of hot spring viral community diversity, this study aimed to investigate the first African hot spring (Brandvlei hot spring; 60 °C, pH 5.7) by means of electron microscopy and sequencing of the virus fraction. Microscopy analysis revealed a mixture of regular- and ‘jumbo’-sized tailed morphotypes (Caudovirales), lemon-shaped virions (Fuselloviridae-like; salterprovirus-like) and pleiomorphic virus-like particles. Metavirome analysis corroborated the presence of His1-like viruses and has expanded the current clade of salterproviruses using a polymerase B gene phylogeny. The most represented viral contig was to a cyanophage genome fragment, which may underline basic ecosystem functioning provided by these viruses. Furthermore, a putative Gemmata-related phage was assembled with high coverage, a previously undocumented phage-host association. This study demonstrated that a moderately thermophilic spring environment contained a highly novel pool of viruses and should encourage future characterization of a wider temperature range of hot springs throughout the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: hot spring; metavirome; Fuselloviridae; jumbo phage; archaeal viruses; freshwater cyanophages; Gemmata hot spring; metavirome; Fuselloviridae; jumbo phage; archaeal viruses; freshwater cyanophages; Gemmata
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Zablocki, O.; van Zyl, L.J.; Kirby, B.; Trindade, M. Diversity of dsDNA Viruses in a South African Hot Spring Assessed by Metagenomics and Microscopy. Viruses 2017, 9, 348.

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