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Viruses 2016, 8(8), 214; doi:10.3390/v8080214

Fluorescent and Bioluminescent Reporter Myxoviruses

1
Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA
2
Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, 1405 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis Martinez-Sobrido
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 8 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication-Competent Reporter-Expressing Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2395 KB, uploaded 4 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

The advent of virus reverse genetics has enabled the incorporation of genetically encoded reporter proteins into replication-competent viruses. These reporters include fluorescent proteins which have intrinsic chromophores that absorb light and re-emit it at lower wavelengths, and bioluminescent proteins which are luciferase enzymes that react with substrates to produce visible light. The incorporation of these reporters into replication-competent viruses has revolutionized our understanding of molecular virology and aspects of viral tropism and transmission. Reporter viruses have also enabled the development of high-throughput assays to screen antiviral compounds and antibodies and to perform neutralization assays. However, there remain technical challenges with the design of replication-competent reporter viruses, and each reporter has unique advantages and disadvantages for specific applications. This review describes currently available reporters, design strategies for incorporating reporters into replication-competent paramyxoviruses and orthomyxoviruses, and the variety of applications for which these tools can be utilized both in vitro and in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluorescent reporter virus; bioluminescent reporter virus; paramyxovirus; orthomyxovirus fluorescent reporter virus; bioluminescent reporter virus; paramyxovirus; orthomyxovirus
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Rostad, C.A.; Currier, M.C.; Moore, M.L. Fluorescent and Bioluminescent Reporter Myxoviruses. Viruses 2016, 8, 214.

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