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Viruses 2016, 8(7), 207; doi:10.3390/v8070207

Local Innate Responses to TLR Ligands in the Chicken Trachea

Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Charu Kaushic
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
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Abstract

The chicken upper respiratory tract is the portal of entry for respiratory pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). The presence of microorganisms is sensed by pathogen recognition receptors (such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)) of the innate immune defenses. Innate responses are essential for subsequent induction of potent adaptive immune responses, but little information is available about innate antiviral responses of the chicken trachea. We hypothesized that TLR ligands induce innate antiviral responses in the chicken trachea. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) were used to investigate localized innate responses to TLR ligands. Expression of candidate genes, which play a role in antiviral responses, was quantified. To confirm the antiviral responses of stimulated TOC, chicken macrophages were treated with supernatants from stimulated TOC, prior to infection with AIV. The results demonstrated that TLR ligands induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, type I interferons and interferon stimulated genes in the chicken trachea. In conclusion, TLR ligands induce functional antiviral responses in the chicken trachea, which may act against some pathogens, such as AIV. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicken trachea; TLR ligands; innate antiviral responses chicken trachea; TLR ligands; innate antiviral responses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Barjesteh, N.; Alkie, T.N.; Hodgins, D.C.; Nagy, É.; Sharif, S. Local Innate Responses to TLR Ligands in the Chicken Trachea. Viruses 2016, 8, 207.

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