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Viruses 2016, 8(7), 204; doi:10.3390/v8070204

Inactivation of RNA Viruses by Gamma Irradiation: A Study on Mitigating Factors

1
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Boston University, 620 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
2
National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories (NEIDL), Boston University, 620 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
3
Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th St, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
Present address: Office of the Vice Provost for Research, Biosafety Office, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Mehle
Received: 28 May 2016 / Revised: 8 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2217 KB, uploaded 22 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Effective inactivation of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogens is vital in order to study these agents safely. Gamma irradiation is a commonly used method for the inactivation of BSL-4 viruses, which among other advantages, facilitates the study of inactivated yet morphologically intact virions. The reported values for susceptibility of viruses to inactivation by gamma irradiation are sometimes inconsistent, likely due to differences in experimental protocols. We analyzed the effects of common sample attributes on the inactivation of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein and green fluorescent protein. Using this surrogate virus, we found that sample volume and protein content of the sample modulated viral inactivation by gamma irradiation but that air volume within the sample container and the addition of external disinfectant surrounding the sample did not. These data identify several factors which alter viral susceptibility to inactivation and highlight the usefulness of lower biosafety level surrogate viruses for such studies. Our results underscore the need to validate inactivation protocols of BSL-4 pathogens using “worst-case scenario” procedures to ensure complete sample inactivation. View Full-Text
Keywords: gamma irradiation; virus inactivation; biosafety; BSL-4; vesicular stomatitis virus; measles virus; La Crosse virus; Ebola virus gamma irradiation; virus inactivation; biosafety; BSL-4; vesicular stomatitis virus; measles virus; La Crosse virus; Ebola virus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hume, A.J.; Ames, J.; Rennick, L.J.; Duprex, W.P.; Marzi, A.; Tonkiss, J.; Mühlberger, E. Inactivation of RNA Viruses by Gamma Irradiation: A Study on Mitigating Factors. Viruses 2016, 8, 204.

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