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Viruses 2016, 8(7), 202; doi:10.3390/v8070202

The Role of Phlebovirus Glycoproteins in Viral Entry, Assembly and Release

1
Infection Biology Unit, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, Göttingen 37077, Germany
2
Institute for Microbiology and Virology, Medizinische Hochschule Brandenburg Theodor Fontane, Grossenhainer Str. 57, Senftenberg 01968, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jane Tao and Pierre-Yves Lozach
Received: 20 April 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Bunyavirus Research)
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Abstract

Bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a tripartite RNA genome that can pose a serious threat to animal and human health. Members of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks to humans and include highly pathogenic agents like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) as well as viruses that do not cause disease in humans, like Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). Phleboviruses and other bunyaviruses use their envelope proteins, Gn and Gc, for entry into target cells and for assembly of progeny particles in infected cells. Thus, binding of Gn and Gc to cell surface factors promotes viral attachment and uptake into cells and exposure to endosomal low pH induces Gc-driven fusion of the viral and the vesicle membranes. Moreover, Gn and Gc facilitate virion incorporation of the viral genome via their intracellular domains and Gn and Gc interactions allow the formation of a highly ordered glycoprotein lattice on the virion surface. Studies conducted in the last decade provided important insights into the configuration of phlebovirus Gn and Gc proteins in the viral membrane, the cellular factors used by phleboviruses for entry and the mechanisms employed by phlebovirus Gc proteins for membrane fusion. Here, we will review our knowledge on the glycoprotein biogenesis and the role of Gn and Gc proteins in the phlebovirus replication cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bunyaviridae; phlebovirus; glycoproteins; virus attachment; entry; membrane fusion; signal peptidase; assembly Bunyaviridae; phlebovirus; glycoproteins; virus attachment; entry; membrane fusion; signal peptidase; assembly
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Spiegel, M.; Plegge, T.; Pöhlmann, S. The Role of Phlebovirus Glycoproteins in Viral Entry, Assembly and Release. Viruses 2016, 8, 202.

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