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Viruses 2016, 8(7), 183; doi:10.3390/v8070183

Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector for Development of Human and Veterinary Vaccines

Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis Martinez-Sobrido
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 22 June 2016 / Published: 4 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Replication-Competent Reporter-Expressing Viruses)
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Abstract

Viral vaccine vectors have shown to be effective in inducing a robust immune response against the vaccine antigen. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is a promising vaccine vector against human and veterinary pathogens. Avirulent NDV strains LaSota and B1 have long track records of safety and efficacy. Therefore, use of these strains as vaccine vectors is highly safe in avian and non-avian species. NDV replicates efficiently in the respiratory track of the host and induces strong local and systemic immune responses against the foreign antigen. As a vaccine vector, NDV can accommodate foreign sequences with a good degree of stability and as a RNA virus, there is limited possibility for recombination with host cell DNA. Using NDV as a vaccine vector in humans offers several advantages over other viral vaccine vectors. NDV is safe in humans due to host range restriction and there is no pre-existing antibody to NDV in the human population. NDV is antigenically distinct from common human pathogens. NDV replicates to high titer in a cell line acceptable for human vaccine development. Therefore, NDV is an attractive vaccine vector for human pathogens for which vaccines are currently not available. NDV is also an attractive vaccine vector for animal pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: Newcastle disease virus; vaccine vector; human vaccines; veterinary vaccines Newcastle disease virus; vaccine vector; human vaccines; veterinary vaccines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, S.-H.; Samal, S.K. Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector for Development of Human and Veterinary Vaccines. Viruses 2016, 8, 183.

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