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Viruses 2016, 8(6), 166; doi:10.3390/v8060166

Alphavirus Infection: Host Cell Shut-Off and Inhibition of Antiviral Responses

1
Nuffield Department of Medicine, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SY, England, UK
2
Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB, Wageningen 6700 AB, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Craig McCormick
Received: 23 April 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 11 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Subversion of Stress Responses and Translational Control)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [857 KB, uploaded 11 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Alphaviruses cause debilitating disease in humans and animals and are transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods, typically mosquitoes. With a traditional focus on two models, Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus, alphavirus research has significantly intensified in the last decade partly due to the re-emergence and dramatic expansion of chikungunya virus in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. As a consequence, alphavirus–host interactions are now understood in much more molecular detail, and important novel mechanisms have been elucidated. It has become clear that alphaviruses not only cause a general host shut-off in infected vertebrate cells, but also specifically suppress different host antiviral pathways using their viral nonstructural proteins, nsP2 and nsP3. Here we review the current state of the art of alphavirus host cell shut-off of viral transcription and translation, and describe recent insights in viral subversion of interferon induction and signaling, the unfolded protein response, and stress granule assembly. View Full-Text
Keywords: alphavirus; chikungunya; Sindbis; Semliki Forest; host shut-off; transcription; translation; antiviral response; stress granules; interferon; unfolded protein response alphavirus; chikungunya; Sindbis; Semliki Forest; host shut-off; transcription; translation; antiviral response; stress granules; interferon; unfolded protein response
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fros, J.J.; Pijlman, G.P. Alphavirus Infection: Host Cell Shut-Off and Inhibition of Antiviral Responses. Viruses 2016, 8, 166.

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