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Viruses 2016, 8(6), 160; doi:10.3390/v8060160

Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
2
German Center for Infection Research, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Tai
Received: 16 April 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Membranes and the Viral Infection Cycle)
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Abstract

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle. It forms a complex network of continuous sheets and tubules, extending from the nuclear envelope (NE) to the plasma membrane. This network is frequently perturbed by positive-strand RNA viruses utilizing the ER to create membranous replication factories (RFs), where amplification of their genomes occurs. In addition, many enveloped viruses assemble progeny virions in association with ER membranes, and viruses replicating in the nucleus need to overcome the NE barrier, requiring transient changes of the NE morphology. This review first summarizes some key aspects of ER morphology and then focuses on the exploitation of the ER by viruses for the sake of promoting the different steps of their replication cycles. View Full-Text
Keywords: intracellular organelles; cell membranes; membrane rearrangements; nuclear envelope; peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER); virus-host interactions; viral replication; virion assembly; vesicles; electron microscopy intracellular organelles; cell membranes; membrane rearrangements; nuclear envelope; peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER); virus-host interactions; viral replication; virion assembly; vesicles; electron microscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Romero-Brey, I.; Bartenschlager, R. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly. Viruses 2016, 8, 160.

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