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Viruses 2016, 8(4), 96; doi:10.3390/v8040096

Current Approaches for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infections in Humans

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA
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Academic Editor: Alexander Ploss
Received: 11 February 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [227 KB, uploaded 12 April 2016]

Abstract

Despite significant advancement in vaccine and virus research, influenza continues to be a major public health concern. Each year in the United States of America, influenza viruses are responsible for seasonal epidemics resulting in over 200,000 hospitalizations and 30,000–50,000 deaths. Accurate and early diagnosis of influenza viral infections are critical for rapid initiation of antiviral therapy to reduce influenza related morbidity and mortality both during seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Several different approaches are currently available for diagnosis of influenza infections in humans. These include viral isolation in cell culture, immunofluorescence assays, nucleic acid amplification tests, immunochromatography-based rapid diagnostic tests, etc. Newer diagnostic approaches are being developed to overcome the limitations associated with some of the conventional detection methods. This review discusses diagnostic approaches currently available for detection of influenza viruses in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: Influenza diagnostics; Immunoassay; Influenza viruses; hemaglutinin; neuraminidase; subtype; next-generation sequencing (NGS) Influenza diagnostics; Immunoassay; Influenza viruses; hemaglutinin; neuraminidase; subtype; next-generation sequencing (NGS)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vemula, S.V.; Zhao, J.; Liu, J.; Wang, X.; Biswas, S.; Hewlett, I. Current Approaches for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infections in Humans. Viruses 2016, 8, 96.

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