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Viruses 2016, 8(4), 88; doi:10.3390/v8040088

Determinants of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Involved in Infectivity, Replication and Pathogenesis

1
Molecular and Cellular Epigenetics (GIGA) and Molecular Biology (Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech), University of Liège (ULg), 4000 Liège, Belgium
2
Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center CODA-CERVA, 1180 Brussels, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Tai
Received: 6 January 2016 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Membranes and the Viral Infection Cycle)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [528 KB, uploaded 24 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM) are essential determinants of infection. Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: retroviruses; viral entry; envelope; glycoprotein; J0101 retroviruses; viral entry; envelope; glycoprotein; J0101
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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de Brogniez, A.; Mast, J.; Willems, L. Determinants of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Involved in Infectivity, Replication and Pathogenesis. Viruses 2016, 8, 88.

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